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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. variable-ratio schedule
  2. unconditioned response (UCR)
  3. cognitive map
  4. behaviorism
  5. condition stimulus (CS)
  1. a in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in the mouth
  2. b in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
  3. c a mental representation of the layout of one's evnironment. for example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
  4. d the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)
  5. e in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. learning by observing others
  2. thornkide's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
  3. the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
  4. an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
  5. an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

5 True/False questions

  1. operant conditioninga type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stiumlus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticaipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus (also called Pavlovian conditioning)


  2. operant chamber ("skinner box")behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences


  3. reinforcementan event that decreases the behavior that it follows


  4. spontaneous recoveryreinforcing the desired response every time it occurs


  5. fixed-ratio schedulein operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses


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