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VARIETIES OF AMERICAN NATIONALISM
Brinkley, Chapter 8
Terms in this set (31)
How did America's wartime experience underline the need for another national bank?
After the expiration of the charter of the 1st B.U.S. in 1811, a large number of state banks had begun operations issuing large quantities of bank notes but not always retaining enough reserves of gold or silver to redeem the notes on demand. There was such a wide variety of notes in circulation that it made honest business difficult and counterfeiting easy. (219)
How did Congress propose to promote manufacturing in the United States?
In 1816, protectionists in Congress won passage of a tariff law that effectively limited competition from abroad on a wide range of items, among the most important of which was cotton cloth (220)
How was transportation improved during this period? What serious gaps remained in the nation's transportation system?
In 1807, Jefferson's sec of treasury, Albert Gallatin, proposed that revenues from the Ohio land sales should finance a National Road from the Potomac River to the Ohio River. By 1818, this highway ran as far as Wheeling, VA, on the Ohio River. Additionally, the state of PA gave $100,000 to a private company to extend the Lancaster pike westward to Pittsburgh. Stage coaches, wagons, carriages, and even cattle traveled these highways which made transportation costs across the mountains lower than ever before. At the same time, improvements in steam powered shipping was expanding rapidly. Together, transportation improvements stimulated the agricultural economy of the West and the South by providing much readier access to markets at greatly reduced cost. They enabled eastern manufacturers to send their finished goods west. (220) GAPS -> The British blockade during the War of 1812 cut off Atlantic shipping and the coastal roads became choked by the unaccustomed volume of north-south traffic. Long lines of wagons waited for a chance to use the ferries that were still the only means of crossing most rivers. Oxcarts were used, but took extensive time to travel from Philadelphia to Charleston. In some areas, there were serious shortages of goods that normally traveled by sea, and prices rose to new heights. (220)
What were the arguments in favor of internal improvements financed by the government? What were the arguments against this idea?
The absence of good roads also hindered military campaigns on the northern and western frontiers. In 1815, President Madison suggested a Constitutional amendment to give Congress authority for construction. Rep Calhoun introduced a bill that would have used the funds owed the government by the B.U.S. to finance internal improvements. (221) President Madison vetoed the bill on his last day in office, explaining that he supported its purpose but did not believe Congress had the authority to fund the improvements without a constitutional amendment. (221)
What were the reasons for the so-called Great Migration?
Population growth. Agricultural land in the east was occupied and in some cases exhausted. Following the war, the federal government continued policies of pushing Native tribes farther west opening up opportunities for settlement. (222)
What were the characteristics of life among white settlers in the Old Northwest?
Small farmers and settlers moved to occupy the fertile lands wrested from Native tribes through a series of land treaties and the factor system, by which government agents supplied tribes with goods at cost and drove Canadian traders from the region. White settlers arrived on flatboats with all of their possessions and left the river to travel overland with wagons, handcarts, packhorses, cattle, and hogs. (222)
How did life in the Old Southwest differ from that in other sections of the country?
The principal attraction was cotton as uplands in the Old South had lost much of their fertility through overplanting and erosion. The Black Belt of central AL and MS contained dark, productive soil and encouraged ambitious farmers to migrate. The growth of Southern settlement spread cotton, plantations, and slavery. Large planters would follow the first arrivals of small farmers who would clear the land. Great caravans would mark the journey of the large planters with herds of livestock, wagonloads of household goods, long lines of slaves, and the planter's family riding in carriages. (222-3)
Who were the "mountain men"? Why were they important in the settlement of the West?
Trappers who moved west from the Great Lakes region and began to establish themselves in what is now Utah and parts of N Mexico in search of furs and skins for trade. (223-4) They were important to the settlement of the West in the establishment of commerce and the fact that they lived peaceably and successfully with Native Americans and Mexicans whose lands they shared. Many married Indian or Hispanic women. (224)
Explain the perception that easterners had of the West.
Stories of trappers like Jedidiah S. Smith depicting disastrous battles with the Mojaves and other tribes became exaggerated and popular. More important were the explorers dispatched by the US government with instructions to chart the territories they visited. Stephen H. Long (1819-20) led a group through what is now NE, CO, & KS and wrote an influential report on his trip including an assessment of the region's potential for future settlement and development. (224)
Why were the leaders of New England disturbed at the nomination end election of James Monroe for president, and what did Monroe do to calm these fears?
Many in the North were expressing impatience with the so-called VA dynasty. Monroe was a citizen of great integrity having served in the Revolutionary War, as a diplomat, and as Sec of State. In his cabinet selection, he took pains to offer positions to northerners and southerners, easterners and westerners, Federalists and Republicans, including his choice of Sec of State, former Federalist and New Englander John Quincy Adams. (225) (Sec of State had become de facto training ground for the Presidency.)
Why was Florida such a problem for Americans in the South, and how did Andrew Jackson make the resolution of the problem an absolute necessity?
Florida was home to the Seminole Indians who continually raided American territories. Jackson had order from Sec of War Calhoun to "adopt necessary measures" to stop continuing raids on American territory. (225) Jackson's raid demonstrated to the Spanish that the US could easily take FL by force. (226)
What were the critical points decided by the Adams-Onis negotiations?
Spain ceded all of FL to the US and gave up claim to territory north of 42nd parallel in Pacific NW. In return, the American government gave up its claims to TX.
What were the causes of the Panic of 1819?
The rising prices of farm goods had stimulated a land boom in the western US. Fueled by speculative investments, land prices soared. The availability of easy credit to settlers and speculators- from the government land acts of 1800 and 1804, state banks, wildcat banks, even the 2nd B.U.S.- fueled the land boom. In 1819, new management at the national bank began tightening credit, calling loans, and foreclosing mortgages, precipitating a series of bank failures at the state level. (226)
What impact did the Panic of 1819 have on the American economy? What did the government do to try to ease the pain of this depression?
Following the series of state bank failures was a financial panic that many Americans, particularly in the West, blamed on the national bank. Six years of depression followed and began a process that would eventually make the bank's existence one of the nation's most burning political issues. (226)
What were the major elements of disagreement in the debate over the admission of Missouri into the Union?
Slavery. The proposed Tallmadge amendment sought to prohibit the further introduction of slaves into MO and provide for the emancipation of those already there. (226)
Which group opposed Missouri's entering the Union as a slave state? Why?
Northern members of Congress who were concerned that it would disrupt the balance of power and representation that existed between free and slave states. (226-7)
What was the Missouri Compromise? Why did nationalists regard it as a "happy resolution of a danger to the Union"? Why were others less optimistic?
Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state to maintain a balance of power in government. Senator Jesse B Thomas of Illinois proposed an amendment prohibiting slavery in the LA purchase territory north of the southern boundary of MO (36-30 parallel).(226-7) Nationalists must have believed that the Union was preserved. Others were less optimistic and foresaw that conflict would reemerge as the issue of slavery was far from being resolved.
What was the net effect of the opinions delivered by the Marshall Court? How did these opinions reflect John Marshall's philosophy of government?
Marshall molded the development of the Constitution by strengthening the judicial branch at the expense of the executive and legislative branches and increasing the power of the federal government at the expense of the states. Finally, he advanced the interests of propertied and commercial classes through the promotion of commerce and defending the inviolability of contracts. His opinions reflected his philosophies of the importance of strong, central government. (227)
Who led the opposition to the Marshall Court, and what was the position they took in denouncing it?
Advocates of states rights, particularly in the South, and the Republican party in Congress and the White House would have led the opposition to the Marshall Court. In the case of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, Republicans attempted to revise Dartmouth's charter to convert it from a private college to a state university. (227)
What was the long-range significance of the case of Gibbons v. Ogden? Of immediate importance, how did the case help to blunt criticism of the Court?
The Court strengthened Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce. This and similar decisions established federal primacy over states, which would blunt criticism of the Court. (228)
How was it that the United States' proclamation of neutrality in the wars between Spain and its colonies actually aided the colonies? Why did the United States do this?
It implied partial recognition of the rebels' status as nations. The US also sold ships and supplies to the revolutionaries. Essentially the enactment of the Monroe Doctrine was for the purpose of keeping European powers at bay with respect to the Americas and another sign of the growing nationalism in the United States in the 1820s. (229)
Why was the caucus system viewed with such disdain before the election of 1824?
Prior to 1824, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but the Federalist party had ceased operation, leaving a one party system. Factions arose within the party that disagreed with the party nomination of William H. Crawford of Georgia. (230)
Who were the candidates in the election of 1824? What was the platform of each?
Sec of Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia, Sec of State John Quincy Adams, Speaker of the House Henry Clay of KY, Senator and war hero Andrew Jackson of TN (230)
What was the outcome of the election of 1824? How was that result arrived at, and what part did Henry Clay play in it?
Jackson received more popular and electoral votes, but not a majority. Adams wins -> The 12th amendment required the House to choose between the 3 most popular candidates. Jackson and Clay were rivals, so Clay supported Adams and his endorsement helped Adams win. (230)
What was the "corrupt bargain," and why did it take place?
Following the election outcome that seemed unfair to the Jacksonians, Adams appoints Clay secretary of state, a position which had become a well established route to the Presidency.(230)
What did John Quincy Adams plan to accomplish during his presidency? What role was the federal government to play in these plans? Was he successful? Why or why not?
He proposed an ambitious nationalist policy similar to Clay's American System -> promoting home markets through protective tariff, strengthening the national bank, and financing internal improvements. The Jacksonians in Congress blocked most of it. (230-1)
In the field of foreign affairs, what did Adams and Clay attempt to do? Were they successful? Why or why not?
They attempted to have an active role in an international conference of the Americas in 1826. They were unsuccessful as Southerners in Congress objected to convening with black delegates from Haiti. (231)
What problems brought on the tariff debates of 1827 and 1828? In what way did the South respond to northeastern demands for a higher tariff, and on what did the forces opposed to the tariff base their stand?
In NE, woolen manufacturers requested a new tariff as Britain was dumping textiles on the American market at artificially low rates. In an effort to gain the support of middle and western states, the administration had to accept duties on other items. In the process, it antagonized the original NE supporters of the bill. The benefits of protecting now had to be weighed against the prospects of having to pay more for raw goods. (231)
What was the outcome of these tariff debates, and why was it that few were pleased with these results?
In signing the bill, Adams earned the animosity of southerners, who cursed it as the "tariff of abominations." (231)
How had Andrew Jackson's supporters prepared for the election of 1828? What were the issues in the campaign, and what was the outcome?
Jackson's supporters started to call themselves the Democratic Republicans who called for an assault on privilege and a widening of opportunity. Supporters of Adams called themselves the National Republicans. Issues counted for little as the campaign degenerated into a war of personal invective. Jackson's victory was decisive, but sectional. (231)
Who were the National Republicans? Who were their leaders? What programs did they support, and from what areas did they draw their strength?
Adams' supporters who supported the economic nationalism of the preceding years. They were largely made up of remaining Federalists. Adams showed strength in the campaign by winning virtually all of New England and parts of the mid-Atlantic region.
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