Terms in this set (993)
Prenatal hair is called?LanugoAt what stage of hair growth does the hair separate from the papilla?CatagenTrichology involves the study of the diseases of the:HairWhat two hormones are secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?Oxytocin, ADHWhat is the most heat resistant VIRUS?Hepatitis BName the settings (temperature, time, psi) for autoclave sterilization (PACKAGED)30 min @ 250°F (121°C) at 15 PSI plus heat up timeWhich of the following is produced during a high frequency blowout?SteamWhat is idiopathic hirsuitism?Hirsutism of an unknown originWhat is the principal thyroid hormone that you can not live without?T3What is a measurement in cycles per second called?HertzDuring puberty, ambisexual hair is located where?Groin and axillaA patient taking anticoagulant medication is at risk for?Excess bleedingWhat is virilism?The development of secondary male characteristics in femalesThe most common skin cancer is?Basal cell carcinomaName a reason you would drape a patientSense of modesty for the patientExplain the purpose of an insulated probe used during high frequency?To isolate the epidermis from heat damageName the six hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?ACTH, LH, MSH, FSH, TSH, HGHSymptoms of initial (early stage) HIV are:Low grade fever, weight loss, night sweats, fatigueExplain the purpose of an insulated probe used during high frequency?To isolate the epidermis from heat damageTwo distinct symptoms of advanced (late stage) HIV that confirms AIDS are?Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcomaCollagen bundles and elastin fibers as well as connective tissue is found in?The reticular (as Jen says particular!)With all variables kept constant except depth of insertion, how does a shallow insertion compare with a deeper one?The shallow insertion is hotterWhat two hormones does the medulla of the adrenal glands produce?Epinephrine, norepinephrineThe target cells at risk from an HIV attack are:CD4When treating the right upper lip of a pregnant woman, the indifferent electrode should be placed on?The right hand (always a hand)What gland activates the axilla/groin hair growth during puberty?AprocrineDuring electrolysis, a #1 (.001) probe will have _________ a #3 (.003) probe.More current density thanWho was the first person to use a galvanic current in Electrolysis to treat ingrown eyelashes?1875, Charles MichelWhat was the occupation of the physician who first used electrolysis?Ophthalmologist (surgeon)An eschar is?Honey-colored lymph crustWhere does the strength of the dermis come from?Reticular layer (reticular particular)What is a depression in the epidermis?FollicleA structural or functional change in tissue caused by a disease or injury is called a?LesionWith continuous stimulation, it is known that nerve impulses in a neuron will lessen with time even though the intensity remains the same. This is called?Synapse fatigueMelanocytes are responsible for what?Pigment coloringThe phenomenon that allows electrologists to perform thermolysis and use a grounding wire or indifferent electrode is?Capacitive returnThe rheostat is a device that controls?Quantity of AC current Quantity of DC current Exact amount of current in your needle when you use galvanic currentWhat is the function of the lymphatic system?Sifts out impurities from the blood, fights disease by producing antibodiesThe F.C.C. assigned frequency for Electrology is?13.56 mhzWhat is petechii?Small pin-point bruiseWhat is ecchymosis?A large bruise caused by blood leaking into capillariesIn progressive epilation, all except one are true: a.) hair is returned to its original position after it is lifted with the forceps b.) forceps are held in the free hand c.) when testing the hair, do not pull on the skin surface d.) forceps are held in the same hand as the probeForceps are held in the same hand as the probeIn the case of an ingrown hair, the electrolysis should?Release the trapped endThe shaft of a trapped hair may be visible through the skin; it is under the?Stratum CorneumWhat type of injury is caused by excessive galvanic?Chemical burnHairs with flat shafts come from?Curved folliclesThermolysis is considered to beMono-terminalA high frequency blowout is caused by?SteamThe by-products of galvanic electrolysis are?Chlorine gas and Hydrogen gasThe formula for quantity of lye is?Milliamperes times seconds equals units of lyeFaraday's law is?Milliamperes times seconds equals units of lyeThe Sympathetic nervous system is known for?Fight or flight responseThe Parasympathetic nervous system is known for?Rest and responseA molecule is the smallest unit of matter: a.) into which a substance can be divided without losing its basic properties b.) which has an excess or a deficiency or electrons c.) into which a substance can be divided but their basic properties change d.) which has a stable stateInto which a substance can be divided without losing its basic propertiesOHM's law is?current times resistance equals voltage (VCR)Freckles occur from?Sun exposureThe largest of the fluid-less lesions is called?TumorEndocrine glands are glands of?internal secretionDermographia is?Writing on the skinDermatitis artifacta is?Lesions produced by the patientThe critical zone is defined as?The area within the needle hot enough to destroy tissueWhat layer of skin varies in thickness (thinner on upper arm, thicker on palms and soles)?Stratum granulosumWhat is the minimum alcohol concentration that can be used on a patient?30%Examples of hypertrophy is? a.) lentigen b.) pustule c.) verruca d.) keloidKeloidThe sensory neuron that sends information from the sense organs to the brain and spinal cord are called?Afferent neuronsFibrils are the thread-like filaments at the end of axons and are also known as?Terminal branchesWhat is Alphagenic Induction?Vocal AnesthesiaWhere does vellus hair begin its growth?Lobe of sebaceous glandA person, animal, or individual cell which receives or is open to infection is a?HostA microbe that cannot reproduce itself unless it invades a living cell is known as a?VirusName three modes of indirect transmission of disease? a.) person to person, vehicle, spore forming b.) airborne, vehicle, vector c.) airborne, person to person, vector d.) spore forming, airborne, vectorAirborne, vehicle, vectorA T-cell count that is 500 and drops to below 200 is indicative of what disease?AIDSA type of cell whose function is to destroy foreign bodies and aid in the wound healing process for the immune system is known as?MacrophageName the 5 layers of the epidermis from the bottom to the top? a.) st. germinativum, st. spinosum, st. granulosum, st. lucidum, st. corneum b.) st. germinativum, st. granulosum, st. lucidum, st. corneum, st. spinosum c.) st. spinosum, st. granulosum, st. germinativum, st. lucidum, st. corneum d.) st. spinosum, st. granulosum, st. germinativum, st. corneum, st. lucidumSt. germinativum, st. spinosum, st. granulosum, st. lucidum, st. corneumThe anode is the ___________, pole and the cathode is the ___________ pole.Positive, NegativeHigh frequency become popular in the? a.) 1880's b.) 1920's c.) 1940's d.) 1960's1940'sName the layers of the hair starting from the innermost to outermost: a.) medulla, cortex, cuticle, cuticle of hair, Henle's layer, Huxley's layer, outer root sheath, vitreous membrane, connective tissue b.) medulla, cortex, cuticle, cuticle of hair, Huxley's layer, Henle's layer, outer root sheath, vitreous membrane, connective tissue c.) medulla, cortex, cuticle of hair, cuticle, Huxley's layer, Henle's layer, outer root sheath, vitreous membrane, connective tissue d.) medulla, cortex, Henle's layer, cuticle, cuticle of hair, Huxley's layer, outer root sheath, vitreous membrane, connective tissueMedulla, Cortex, Cuticle of hair, Cuticle, Huxley's layer, Henle's layer, Outer root sheath, Vitreous Membrane, Connective tissueWho was the first person to use thermolysis (H.F.) to kill hair? What year?Dr. Bordier in 1923Who is responsible for the development of the oscillating wave?Heinrich HertzThe term coagulation is defined as:To congeal into a thickened massThe term electro-desiccation is defined as:To deprive of moistureWhat is the name of a natural magnet?LodestoneHigh frequency radio signals are at what range?3-30 MHzWhat layer of the epidermis contains Langerhan's cells that act as macrophages?Stratum SpinosumWhat hair structure comes from the lobe of the oil gland and is fetal, that sheds shortly after birth?LanugoA place within which microorganisms can thrive and reproduce is called?ReservoirWhat is the most common bacterial disease in the world?TuberculosisTo sanitize means:A temporary reduction of bacteriaWhat gland activates the axilla/groin hair growth during puberty?ApocrineWhich of the glands throw off waste?Sudoriferous glandsWhere does the strength of the dermis come from?Reticular layerThe skin infection of folliculitis is best described as:The presence of staphylococci infection of the epidermisA two dimensional hemorrhage under the skin usually caused by laser treatment is known as?PurpuraIn women, terminal hair on the face alone suggests:An excess of androgenMale and female sexual hair patterns differ primarily because of differences in:The concentration of circulating androgensWhat is the most common and most heat resistant bacteria disease in the world?TuberculosisAt which of the following times is hand washing indicated?Before and after treatmentWhich of the following methods of sterilizing unpackaged instruments is recommended for use in an electrologists office?Autoclaving at 250°F with a pressure of 15-17 PSI for 15 minutesPersonal Service Workers (PSW) are defined by the enters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as persons whose occupations involve:Close personal contact with clientsA patient with pigmentation problems should have a few short treatments to see how the skin will react. The work done should be:ScatteredYou should not return to an already treated area, so work should be done in:A methodical areaThe modality of galvanic electrolysis is removing hair by:Chemical decompositionForcing chemical solution into unbroken skin by use of electricity is known as:PhoresisThe high frequency field is hottest:At the tip of the needleWhich of the following defines desiccation? a.) adding moisture b.) removing moisture c.) increasing fluidity d.) decreasing fluidityRemoving moistureWhich of the following types of currents is used to achieve electrocoagulation?High FrequencyCauses of blanching include which of the following? a.) overtreatment of the skin b.) shallow insertions c.) overly deep insertions d.) both a and bBoth A & B; Overtreatment of the skin AND Shallow insertionsThe area of influence around the HF probe is called the?HF fieldThe blend or dual method effects permanent hair removal by?High frequency and Galvanic currentAn important factor in the use of the blend is?Correctly proportioned relationship between currentsThe flow of electrons along a wire cannot occur unless there is?Pressure (voltage)The rheostat is a device that controls?The intensity of the currentName the process that inhibits the growth and multiplication of the microorganism:AntisepsisWhat type of disinfectants is used for cleaning noncritical environmental surfaces?Hospital grade disinfectantDuring galvanic electrolysis with the negative electrode inserted into a follicle, the following chemicals are produced at the negative electrode:Sodium hydroxide (lye) and Hydrogen gasIndifferent electrode rash is contributed to by:Hydrochloric acid and Chlorine gasIf treating the left inner thigh of a woman with a metallic IUD, the best location for the indifferent electrode is:Left handA point within the high frequency heat pattern beyond which the temperature is not hot enough to destroy tissue is called?Critical zoneWhen using thermolysis, the increased tissue temperature caused by current flow is greatest: a.) midway between the probe and the critical zone b.) at the critical zone c.) beyond the critical zone d.) close to the probeClose to the probeDuring high frequency blowout steam is produced at the probe tip due to excessive heat production. The problem with steam around the probe tip is?Steam is a good insulator of electricity and too much damage to the upper follicle may resultConsider only high frequency component of the blend treatment. Two follicles are treated. All variables are the same except those relating to pulsing. One follicle is treated with one two-second pulse of high frequency current. The other follicle is treated with two one-second pulses of high frequency current with a one-second rest between. Which of the following is true? a.) hotter temperature will be produced with the single pulse treatment b.) a hotter temperature will be produced with the two-pulse treatment c.) the same temperature will be produced with each treatment d.) pulsing the high frequency current has no effect on the degree of heat produced around the probeHotter temperature will be produced with the single pulse treatmentHow many treatments are required when performing laser hair removal?A series of treatmentsOnly form of permanent hair removal?ElectrolysisThe FDA considers laser hair removal to be?Permanent hair reductionWhat is permanent hair reduction?A long term stable reduction in the amount of regrowing hairs after a treatment regimeIf a person has a new electronic pacemaker and requests electrolysis, it is best to:Ask the patron to check with cardiologistMass-effect shocking is a characteristic of?Multiple needle techniqueWho do you do a test spot on?Skin Type III & IVWhat becomes a chromophore after 900nm?WaterAt the end of a Laser/IPL treatment what should the electrologist do?Apply a cold compress to treated areaUV Rays ranging from 320-400nm is what type of UV Ray?UVA RaysInformation that should be obtained from each patient before treatment includes:Name, address, phone number, prior methods of hair removal, natural hair colorTwo or more hairs sharing a single follicle are referred to as?Pili-mulitgemeniThe primary reason for using cooling devices while performing laser treatments is?Allowing higher and more effective fluences to be used while sparing the epidermisDocumentation of a patient is of important because?Poor documentation may result in the appearance of malpractice, negligence, fraud, and abuseThe following information should be included on a patients chart:Date of treatment, spot size, and joulesDuring the initial consultation, the patient should be informed that the process will take:A series of treatmentsA correct statement about health history documentation is that it is:Necessary for each patient without exceptionThe organization responsible for precaution recommendations to minimize the transmission of blood born pathogens is:Center for Disease Control (CDC)The principle that says energy must be absorbed by an object to produce an effect is called?Grothus-Draper lawThe acronym LASER stands for:Light Amplification of Stimulated Emission of RadiationThe wavelength of the Ruby laser is:694.3nmWhat is laser light?Monochromatic lightLaser is equivalent to which of the following modalities?ThermolysisAn element has the ability to produce laser when it is in which of the following states?Metastable stateLight absorption is required for an effect in tissue. Without absorption, no affect or damage can be observed. This is known as:Grothus Draper LawWhich are positive reactions to the skin indicating a successful LHR treatment?Perifollicular Erythema, Perifollicular EdemaIncandescent light is an example of:Polychromatic lightA requirement for foot switches that directly pulse the laser is that they be:HoodedThe effect of skin turning red after treatment is referred to as:ErythemaAn overtreatment of the skin characterized by blistering or epidermal separation, caused by lateral pressure on the skin in known as:Nikolski SignThe most important consideration while performing laser on a patient is?Goggles at the appropriate wavelengthWhen tissue has been injured, fluid escapes the blood vessels to surround the damaged tissue. This is referred to as?EdemaA 755nm wavelength is specific to which laser?AlexandriteThe most common type of laser used for hair removal is?PulsedTotal destruction of tissue using laser energy is known as?Photo AblationIt is important to advise patients which of the following after a laser treatment?Avoid sunLaser is ineffective on hair that has:Little or no pigmentThe energy level of a laser, measured in joules, is known as?Energy fluencePeople with dark skin have?The same number of melanocytes as light skinned people, but are more activeWhich of the following drugs increase photosensitivity? a.) accutane b.) lidocane c.) polyurethane d.) bensocaneAccutaneLight waves that travel in perfect unison, parallel, and in the same direction is know as?Coherent lightOptical density labeling on laser safety eyewear refers to?The amount of protection against a specific wavelengthA female patient (Fitzpatrick II) has had five full body treatments. she states that her legs are not responding. The examination reveals she still has fairly dark course hairs on lower legs, the rest of the treatment areas show only sporadic patches of very light brown terminal hairs remaining. She has had no adverse reaction to any of the treatments and has not changed any medications. An Alexandrite laser was used with an 18mm spot size, 14 joules and cryogen at 20/30. Select the most appropriate action a.) make no changes and explain hair growth cycles b.) adjust spot size to 15mm and increase fluence c.) adjust fluence higher for legs d.) adjust fluence higher for entire body if plan tolerance permitsAdjust fluence higher for legsAn allergic phototoxic reaction can occur up to _____________ post treatment24 hoursWhich part of the human body is most vulnerable to laser light?EyesThe amount of time it takes a substance after heating, to return to it's normal temperature is known as?Thermal relaxation time (TRT)Using the Fitzpatrick Skin Phototype Scale, a person who is described as having fair skin accompanied by light brown or red hair, has green or blue eye and who always burns is determined to be what skin type?Skin Type IDuring an initial consultation, the patient says that his co-worker was treated by you. When asked if you recall treating the co-worker, you should:In a friendly manner, explain HIPPAThe "retinal hazard region" is laser light:In the visible and near infrared spectrum between 400-1400nmWhat is used to cool the inside of most pulsed lasers during operation?Distilled waterSelect the response with all correct laser safety precautions: a.) hooded foot pedal, door warning signs, disposable patient drapes, cryogen cooling, safety eyewear b.) safety eyewear, hooded foot pedal. locked towel cabinet, contact cooling, distance gauge c.) door warning signs, hooded foot pedal, safety eyewear, emergency stop switch, no mirrors in treatment room d.) door warning signs, safety eyewear, hooded foot pedal, no make-up on patient, distance gaugeDoor warning signs, hooded foot pedal, safety eyewear, emergency stop switch, no mirrors in treatment roomWhat is the chromophore when using the Nd:Yag laser for hair removal?Melanin in the hair shaft and bulbSelect the FDA class of laser that presents both a direct and reflected hazard:IV - 4Your laser hair removal patient has a dark green tattoo on the upper arm. How should this be managed?Cover tattoo with white material and treat hairs around tattoo with a reasonable margin of safetyWhat is OSHA?Occupational Safety and Hazard/Health AdministrationIn laser hair removal, what needs to be damaged in order to prevent further hair growth?Stem cells and dermal papillaA male patient (Fitzpatrick III) is given a test spot on the area of his body with the darkest skin. An Alexandrite laser was used with an 18mm spot size, 16 joules and cryogen at 20/30. Within five minutes, the patient complains of a sunburn-like sensation, and the area exhibits extremely faint red circular edematous lesions. Select the most appropriate action: a.) adjust cryogen to 30/30 b.) stop the treament c.) adjust fluence to 12 or 14 joules d.) adjust spot size to 10mm and fluence to 18 joulesAdjust fluence to 12 or 14 joulesThe treatment used to perform laser hair removal should have all of the following except: a.) no mirrors or other reflective surfaces b.) no window, or windows blacked out with protective coverings c.) protective eyewear outside the door of the room for individuals who may enter during a treatment d.) several ceiling fans to cool the patient and technicianSeveral ceiling fans to cool the patient and technicianWhat is considered a natural chromophore for hair removal lasers?Melanin in the hair shaft and bulbSelect the wavelength of a long-pulsed Ruby laser: a.) 585nm b.) 694nm c.) 532nm d.) 640nm694nmConsidering the Ferriman-Gallwey system, a score of ______ or higher is indicative of excess androgen: a.) 36 b.) 4 c.) 8 d.) 188Hair removal lasers are effective on the following follicle structure: a.) curved b.) distorted c.) straight d.) all of the aboveCurved, distorted, and straightWhat is the most likely cause of red, itchy bumps in the entire treatment area 10 to 14 days after a patients laser hair removal treatment?Detached hairs becoming trapped under the skinLaser hair removal is least effective on follicles in what stage of development?TelogenThe voluntary nationally recognized group established standards for equipment use is known as:American National Standards Institute (ANSI)The application of a clear cold gel to the skin prior to laser hair removal is an example of:Bulk coolingWhen excited with a flashlamp, the Alexandrite crystal emits radiation at: a.) 532nm b.) 694nm c.) 755nm d.) 585nm755nmWhat is the definition of "fluence threshold"?The highest laser setting the skin can tolerate without damageWhich Fitzpatrick skin types are more susceptible to skin cancers? a.) I & III b.) I & V c.) I & II d.) V & VII & IIManagement of patients with Fitzpatrick V and VI skin requires?Longer wavelengthsWho is considered to be the "Father of Lasers" in medicine?Leon GoldmanLaser light cannotCause intracellular changes in DNAComponents of a laser include? a.) a flashlamp or other high intensity non-coherent light source b.) a lasing medium c.) fiber optics and lenses d.) all of the aboveA flashlamp or other high intensity non-coherent light source, a lasing medium, fiber optics and lensesSelect the response with all correct properties of laser light as it reacts with tissue: a.) absorption, scatter, conduction, reflection b.) reflection, absorption, transmission, scatter c.) transmission, scatter, ablation, reflection d.) scatter, reflection, heat transfer, transmissionReflection, absorption, transmission, scatterWhat is the waiting period before laser treatment after a patient sops taking Accutane?180 days (6months)Risks of laser treatment include all of the following except: a.) ecchymosis b.) nodules c.) hypopigmentation d.) edemaNodulesLonger laser wavelengths: a.) penetrate less b.) penetrate more c.) cause more pain d.) edemaPenetrate moreA nanometer is: a.) 1/1000 of a meter b.) 1 millionth of a meter c.) 1 billionth of a meter d.) a measurement to use1 billionth of a meterAn increase in color in cells post treatment is referred to as?HyperpigmentationPulse width refers toThe duration of the pulseWhat is most critical for protection the skin during laser hair removal?Cooling the skinWhat is considered the chromophore when a laser is used to treat red spider veins?OxyhemoglobinEdema is a result of?Serum and lymph passing through vessel walls into tissuePermanent hair reduction according to the FDA is defined as?A long term stable reduction in the number of hair regrowing after a treatment regimeSelect the correct definition of "chromophore" as it relates to laser treatments in general: a.) the object that absorbs the light energy b.) melanin in the hair shaft and bulb c.) the hair follicle d.) the threshold fluenceThe object that absorbs the light energyWhat can occur with excess heating of the skin? a.) hypopigmentation b.) hyperpigmentation c.) hypertrophies d.) all of the aboveHypopigmentation, Hyperpigmentation, and HypertrophiesA "basic" Fitzpatrick scale takes into account:Skin color, genetic deposition, natural hair color, and sensitivity to sunlightFor best results during laser hair removal treatments, follicles should be in?Anagen 6Which is the primary reason that multiple treatments are necessary in laser hair removal?Not all follicles are in the optimum growth stageAside from scalp follicles, what is the typical length of the anagen stage in most other body areas? a.) 4-6 months b.) 5-10 weeks c.) 2-6 years d.) 4-8 weeks4-8 weeksBecause of sun sensitivity, "red heads" must always be considered which Fitzpatrick type? a.) Vi b.) III c.) I d.) IIISelect the correct range for visible light in the elctromagnetic spectrum: a.) 400-1064 nm b.) 400-770nm c.) 694-1064nm d.) 400-700nm400-700nmThe Pulsed Dye laser (blood supply) produces light at which wavelength? a.) 694nm b.) 755nm c.) 585nm d.) 532nm585nmSelect the laser that should be used to remove hair from a patient with very dark skin: a.) Ruby or Argon laser b.) Diode or Nd-Yag laser c.) Erbium-Yag laser d.) Alexandrite laserDiode or ND-Yag laserThermal relaxation time (TRT) refers to?The time it takes the target structure to lose 50% of the heat absorbedA joule is defined as?A watt per secondWhat type of non-laser light is also used for hair removal?Intense pulsed light (IPL)Select the potential contraindication to laser hair removal? a.) sun sensitivity b.) black skin c.) history of hypertrophic scarring d.) all are contraindicationsSun sensitivity, black skin and history of hypertrophic scarringThe law of thermodynamics tells us: a.) atoms are sometimes active b.) atoms move in an organized pattern c.) atoms are always active d.) atoms are active and move in an unorganized patternAtoms are always activeLaser affects the growing cell in the follicle by?Thermal effects of the laser lightThe measure of time that light energy is in contact with the skin is known as?Pulse durationThe measure that determines the target chromophore or pigment is the?WavelengthA person that is sun sensitive, sometimes burns, and tans slowly would be a Fitzpatrick Type?IIIThe use of excessive laser fluence may result in?PurpuraThe most serious skin cancer is?MelanomaRetinal hazard is possible at which of the following wavelengths? a.) 300-900nm b.) 400-1400nm c.) 694.3-1064nm d.) 200-755nm400-1400nmThe target for laser hair removal is?MelaninThe longer pulse widths are considered more effective because?They penetrate deeper into the tissuePost treatment instruction includes all of the following except? a.) keep treated area moisturized with self-tanning lotion b.) use an SPF 30 c.) avoid sun exposure d.) do not tweeze, pluck, or wax during treatment regimeKeep treated area moisturized with self-tanning lotionPost treatment home care instructions for Electrology patients should include a recommendation to?Stay out of the sun for several daysWhich of the following should be suspected in a patient who presents with obesity, red or purple striate, "moon face" and dowagers hump? a.) Hypoglycemia b.) Cushing's syndrome (too much cortisol) c.) lipoprotein imbalance d.) Stein-Leventhal syndrome (PCOS)Cushing's syndromeSun exposure and tanning decreases the efficiency of the treatment with the Alexandrite laser and increases the risk of complications such as: a.) scarring b.) hyperpigmentation c.) perifollicular edema d.) erythemaHyperpigmentationWhich type of diabetes is always insulin dependent? a.) Type I b.) Type II c.) Type III d.) Type IVType ITreatment of African-American patients requires extra caution because their skin is more likely to?Develop keloids, hypopigmentation, or hyperpigmentationDifferences in sexual patterns between males and females are due to?AndrogensIf an African-American male patient presents with psuedofolliculitis barbae with numerous pustules and evidence of secondary infection, the electrologist should?Refer the patient to a physicianPhotothermolysis is based on the principle of using?Laser energy to selectively destroy a target beneath the surface of the skinThe best means of addressing patient concerns about the success of hair removal is to?Reassure the patient and provide realistic expectationsAfter lasing, the subsequent heat transfers from the chormophore to?Adjacent tissueWhich type of skin lesion in considered premalignant? a.) melanoma b.) actinic keratosis c.) scleraderma d.) seborrheic keratosisActinic KeratosisThe most common type of laser used for hair removal is?PulsedWhat is the acronym for LASER? a.) light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation b.) light amplification by saturated emission of radiation c.) laser adjusted by stimulated emission of radiation d.) laser amplification by stimulated emission of radiationLight amplification by stimulated emission of radiationThe longer the wavelength the?Greater penetration of laserwhat is the expectant clinical manifestation/expected outcome after laser treatment?Perifollicular Erythema, Perifollicular EdemaAccording to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "permanent hair reduction" is?Stable reduction in regrowth after treatmentWhen one chromophore shields a deeper chromophore it is called?Chromophore shieldingSpot size selection determines?Depth of penetrationSkin inflammation or redness that occurs as a normal reaction to tissue injury is knows as?ErythemaThe wavelength most effective for laser hair removal falls between? a.) 390-770nm b.) 390-1064nm c.) 755-1064nm d.) 1064-2000nm755-1064nmA positive outcome resulting from patient expectations is called the?Placebo effectUniversal precautions is the term that applies to which of the following? a.) the use of gloves when treating a patient with a history of infectious diseases b.) obtaining a complete medical history on all new patients c.) the tendency of patients to be apprehensive about electrology treatments d.) the use of infection-control practices during the treatment of all patientsThe use of infection-control practices during treatment of all patientsAll of the following are important practices to employ with patients who are beginning laser hair removal treatment EXCEPT: a.) obtaining an informed consent b.) performing a rest patch c.) verifying that the treatment area is free of cherry hemangiomas d.) obtaining a medical historyVerifying that the treatment area is free of cherry hemangiomasTo effectively treat patients with dark skin with a Nd:Yag, you need: a.) shorter wavelengths and shorter pulse widths b.) shorter wavelengths and longer pulse widths c.) longer wavelengths and shorter pulse widths d.) longer wavelengths and longer pulse widthsLonger wavelengths and longer pulse widthsProlonged bleeding from a wound can result from a deficiency of?Vitamin KWhat precautions should the electrologist take before treating a patient with a skin condition that resembles dermatitis artefacta?Refer the patient for a medical evaluationFootswitches on laser hair removal devices differ from those on needle epilators in that laser footswitches are?HoodedThe most common cause of hirsutism and menstral irregularity in women less than 50 years of age is?Polycystic ovaries (PCOS)The average time required for a tweezed hair to reappear is: a.) 1-2 weeks b.) 5-6 weeks c.) 10-12 weeks d.) 14-16 weeks5-6 weeksWhat is the wavelength for the long pulsed alaxandrite lase? a.) 590-1200nm b.) 694.3nm c.) 755nm d.) 1063nm755nmThe relative fluence effect on the skin is greatest with a spot size of? a.) 8mm b.) 10mm c.) 12mm d.) 18mm8mmFuruncles and abscesses on the skin are most frequently caused by which type of bacteria?StaphylococciThe process in which all bacteria are destroyed is known as: a.) sanitation b.) sterilization c.) disinfection d.) irradiationSterilizationIt is not advisable to use absolute (undiluted) alcohol because it?Is less effective than 70% alcoholThe recommended time period to wait before performing electrology procedures on skin that has just receive collagen implants is? a.) 1 week b.) 4 weeks c.) 6 weeks d.) 8 weeks4 weeksHow can blood-borne pathogens enter the body?Through broken skin and mucous membranesThe herpes simplex virus lies dormant in the skin but can be triggered by?Laser treatmentsA new patient presents with excessive facial hair, obesity, and irregular menses. The elctrologists most appropriate action is to?Treat the patient and advise a medical evaluationThe most common form of skin cancer is? a.) malignant melanoma b.) basal cell carcinoma c.) squamous cell carcinoma d.) kaposi's sarcomaBasal cell carcinomaUsing the blend modality, the application of thermolysis cause the lye to? a.) become more caustic b.) become less turbulent c.) coagulate d.) become more dilutedBecome more causticThe most effective hair removal laser for skin types I-IV is?AlexandriteWhich prescription medication is associated with development of phototoxic reactions in response to exposure to UV light? a.) lipitor b.) zithromax c.) erythromycin d.) tetracyclineTetracyclineThere is a higher risk of collateral damage to the skin with a? a.) smaller spot size b.) longer wavelength c.) shorter wavelength d.) longer pulse widthShorter wavelengthA person with a goiter will have increased secretion of? a.) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) b.) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) c) prolactin d.) cortisolThyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)Enhanced secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is causative factor in?Development of hirsutismMost laser hair removal equipment operates in the wavelength ranges associated with? a.) radio waves b.) UV light c.) infrared light d.) visible lightInfrared lightLaser hair removal is achieved by depositing energy into the? a.) hair shaft and pigmented follicular epithelium b.) papillae and regenerative structures c.) hair shaft and regenerative structures d.) papillae and pigmented follicular epitheliumHair shaft and pigmented follicular epitheliumA property of again skin that hinders effective electrolysis is a decrease in?MoistureWhat concentrate of alcohol is required for effective disinfectant action?70%Patients should be advised that one effect of electrology treatment is that it destroys the hair follicles: a.) ability to produce a new hair b.) ability to produce a new follicle c.) specialized nerve endings d.) basal cell layerAbility to produce a new hairWhich of the following is a neurohormone that acts as a very potent stimulant that can increase the perception of pain? a.) histamine b.) epinephrine c.) endorphin d.) cortisoneEndorphinWhich of the following is a possible cause of hair growth?Anorexia nervosaExcessive hair growth resulting from use of medications us which type of hirsutism? a.) adrenal b.) idiopathic c.) iatrogenic d.) geneticIatrogenicThe Grothus-Draper law states that in order for tissue to be affected by laser, there must be?Light absorptionEnlargement of the cells of the adrenal glands resulting in hirsutism before puberty with symptoms of ambiguous gentialia is?Congential adrenal hyperplasia (aka virilism)A new patient mentions that her employer, who is a current patient, recommended consulting with the electrologist. The electrologist's response should be to?Avoid confirming or denying the employer is a patientAnti-androgen therapy for hirsutism may produce a decrease in the Ferriman-Gallewy Index in? a.) 3 treatments b.) 3 weeks c.) 3 months d.) 3 years3 monthsThe application of cold packs decreases edema by?Constricting circulationThe most important safety consideration during treatment with lasers and other photoepilation equipment is to?Take appropriate eye-protection measuresEnhancing a patients confidence and trust helps to reduce?Anxiety and discomfortBlood plasma leaking out of blood vessel walls is the physiological mechanism associated with which common effect of electrology treatment?EdemaOn of the ways in which the electrologist can gain respect and professional recognition from a patient is to?Provide information about hair regrowth and sensation during treatmentA patient expresses concern that electrolysis treatments are stimulating additional hair regrowth. In response, the electrologist should:Provide information about hair growth cycles and the cause of hair growthThe measure of energy density delivered to tissue expressed in joules per cm2 is called?FluenceThe electrologist should advise a patient who is taking phenytoin (Dilantin) that this medication: a.) must be discontinued before treatment b.) may cause hair growth c.) may darken the skin d.) should not be taken the day of treatmentMay cause hair growthThe lye produced in the body during electrolysis is?Neutralized by adjacent body fluidsWhich of the following organizations publishes the Standards for Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities?American National Standards Institute (ANSI)During laser hair removal, increasing the wavelength of the light used will result in? a.) energy penetrating deeper into the tissue b.) a larger spot size c.) an increase in pulse width d.) a greater fluenceEnergy penetrating deeper into the tissueWhat is the best way to achieve infection control in the electrolysis workplace?Follow universal precautionsKnowledge on Ohm's law will help the electrologist to determine the appropriate? a.) modality for treating patient b.) wattage c.) current d.) powerCurrentThe herpes virus is primarily contagious through?Mucocutaneous contactLaser treatments can be hazardous when delivered in the presence of?Compressed oxygenThe "placebo effect" observed in studies of psychological effects is often associated with the brains production of? a.) norepinephrine b.) acetylcholine c.) endorphins d.) epinephrineEndorphinsThe body's first response to infection is to stimulate attraction of the?PhagocytesProlonged stressful situations can produce an increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn causes an increase in? a.) thyroxine b.) androgen c.) insulin d.) estrogenAndrogenA rare skin cancer that usually develops in immune-deficient individuals is?Kaposi's sarcomaThe Fitzpatrick skin classification system takes into account?Hair color, skin color, genetic disposition, and sensitivity to ultraviolet lightIn order for the laser to function effectively, its light must be?MonochromaticMilia and steatoma are conditions associated with which of the following glands?SebaceousA patient who exhibits unusual skin reactions should be referred to which specialist?DermatologistAn adverse consequences of excess heating of the skin deeper than the basement membrane is?Third degree burnThe principal of selective photothermolysis relies on the presence of what substance in the follicle and surround structure?MelaninWhich of the following types of light will travel deepest into the skin?InfraredLaser pulse width represents the? a.) diameter of the skin area being treated with the laser b.) amount of time the skin is exposed to the laser c.) amount of heat generated by the laser d.) amount of energy required for the laser to destroy tissueAmount of time the skin is exposed to the laserLaser-assisted hair removal must not be carried out on patients who are using? a.) alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) b.) piperacillan c.) isotretinoin (accutane) d.) ampicillin (principen)Isotretinoin (accutane)Which of the following is the targeted chromophore in the hair follicle for the Nd:Yag laser?MelaninWhich of the following are deposited at the site of the negative electrode during use of electrolysis equipment?Sodium hydroxide (lye) and Hydrogen gasIn laser hair removal, the most important consideration associated with spot size is the?Depth of penetration of the energy into the dermisElectrologists can use radio frequency current without a grounding pole because of?Capacitive returnIn order to localize the thermal effects, the fluence is typically delivered: a.) with a certain amount of energy b.) within a certain amount of time c.) to lighter skin d.) to lighter hairWith a certain amount of energyThe length of time that energy is applied with the laser is called?Pulse durationLasers disable hair follicles through the use of?Heat generationAdrenocortical insufficiency is known as?Addisons disease (lack of cortisol)Woman who exhibit obesity, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities have an increased likelihood of developing?Glucose intolerance and cardiovascular diseaseRace and ethnicity are related to?Hair growthAn irritating, vesicular skin eruption of systemic origin in known as?EczemaThe electrologist must obtain a complete medical history and medication list for any candidate for laser and light-based hair removal in order to prevent the possibility of?Photoallergic and phototoxic reactionsMelanin's ability to absorb laser photons is a characteristic of?ChromophoresColor of skin derives from a combination of melanin & carotene and:Blood vessels found in the dermisPeople of different races have approx. the same number of melanocytes, darker skinned people have:More active melanocytes and produce more melaninThe Stratum Lucidum is only present on?Palms of hands and feetThe granular layer, persistent friction causes calluses on feet, elbows, and knees, thickness varies is which layer of skin?Stratum GranulosumWhat is the lowest layer of the epidermis = cell division (mitosis) occurs here; Melanocytes are found here = produce melanin = a dark pigment that gives skin its color and protects the dermis from sun damage and UV rays- Stratum Mucosum = Malpighian Layer = where melanin is producedStratum Germinativum/BasalCells contain little organs called?OrganellaPower stations that produce energy for the cell are?MitochondriaCells are continuously dividing into halves, which grow into?Full size cellsIn Meiosis, sexual cell division, the number of chromosomes are reduced by?HalfWhere does mitosis occurs for hair?MatrixWhat type of hirsutism is inherited Hirsutism?Familial HirsutismWhat type of hirsutism is medication induced?Iatric/Iatrogenic HirsutismTerminal hair growth in woman only that is caused by excessive male androgens circulating in the blood is ?HirsutismWhat is the anterior lobe also known as?Master glandWhere are endorphins produced?BrainDeficiency of ADH in posterior lobe; causes the body to produce large amounts of urine; can lead to hypertrichosis?Diabetes InsipidusPrincipal hormone we cannot live withoutT3Increases calcium and decreases phosphorusParathyroid = PTHDecreases calcium and Increases phosphorusThyroid = CalcitoninWhere is the Thymus located?Behind the sternumZona Glomerulosa = Mineral corticoids (MCs); control electrolytes and fluid balance in the bodyAldosteroneZona Reticularis = Sex Steroids; affects ovaries and testesEstrogen, DHEA, TestosteroneThe Adrenal Medulla releases?Adrenaline (Epinephrine and Norepinephrine)Hormone which raises blood sugar to help convert glycogen to glucose in the liver?GlucagonWhich type of diabetes is insulin dependent?Type 1Which type of diabetes is insulin resistant?Type 2What is lymph crust?Honey colored = normal process of healing (eschar)A singed hair remaining in a follicle caused by laser treatment is referred to as: a) Hyperpigmentation b) Blisters c) Lesion d) ScatteringLesionA disease or infection that spreads in the face of a client after electrolysis: a) HIV b) Hepatitis c) Impetigo d) EczemaImpetigoWhat disease does the mite cause? a) Tinea b) Impetigo c) Scabies d) Pediculosis CorporisScabiesVesicular skin eruption of systemic originEczemaAccumulation of keratinized cells and sebum in blind ductsMilia = whiteheadsPermanent lesion around a scarKeloidMost common form of skin cancerBasal cell carcinomaMost deadly form of skin cancerMelanomaWriting on the skin (urticaria)DermatographiaLesions produced by the patient = cutting, picking, self-inflicted painDermatitis ArtefactaDefinition of stress?Accelerated heartbeat, secretion of adrenaline and noradrenalineWhat can generate an impulse for increased pain?Caffeine, Benzedrine, and NicotineNerve for receiving and transmitting painNociceptorIt is a sensation intense enough to induce an emotional response accompanied by an attempt to withdrawal from the stimulantDefinition of painDegree of pain sensation (different for everyone) beyond which the intensity of pain becomes considerable uncomfortable or intolerable, *Electrologists should work as close to this as possible*Pain ThresholdDistraction, diverting the client from thinking about the pain, Suggestion, alter patients' attitudeAlphagenic InductionA complete cycle of blood, moves through body, heart, and lungs in?23 secondsTwo Upper chambers = Left and Right AtriumsReceive bloodTwo Lower chambers = Left and Right VentriclesSend bloodLargest vein in the bodyRight Atrium (RA)Largest Artery in the bodyLeft Ventricle (LV)Blood is ________ water (h2o) - alkaline reaction90% or 2/3What makes up the ARC = AIDS related complex?· PCP = Pneumocystis Carinni Pneumonia · KS = Kaposis Sarcoma = rare skin cancer or disease that affect immune depressed individuals · TB = TuberculosisMost common diseases contracted by people with HIV that make up the?ARC = AIDS related complexA vector is?Insect bite (i.e.- Zika)Transmission of HIV occurs primarily through?Sexual contact with an infected partnerReceptive anal contact without a latex condom carries the greatest risk of?Transmission of HIVAtoms, smallest unit of universe are?Stable = same number of protons and electronsA device that can automatically stop the flow of electricity?Electromagnet (circuit breaker)The Cathode represents the ____________ pole/rodNegativeThe Anode represents the ____________ pole/rodPositiveMeasurement of current flow (intensity, strength, amount of flow, rate of flow)Ampere = AMeasurement of electrical pressureVolt = VA current can't flow along a wire without?Voltage (pressure)Ohm's Law?V (voltage) = CxR (current x resistance)Measurement of power?WattMeasurement of electrical energy?JouleUnit measure of frequency is measured in?Hertz (Hz)What is Galvanic Electrolysis?Removing hair by chemical decompositionWhat is Faradays Law?UL = ma x secThe amount of electrons that flow into a surrounding tissue is?Current density (CD)Strength of the current flowing from the probe to surrounding tissue is?Current intensityThe length of time the current flows from the probe into surrounding tissue is?Current durationWho first performed thermolysis as a form of hair removal in France?Dr. Bordier in 1923Who was the first scientist to demonstrate the existence of high frequency waves?Heinrich HertzWho observed that organic tissue can be heated by high frequency waves?Van ZeynekWhat is the temperature required to kill hair?130Microorganisms that transmit disease?MicrobeMost heat resistant bacteria in the world; used for biological spore tests for sterilizers?TuberculosisMost heat resistant virus in the world ; can survive in dried blood for 7 days?HBV; Hepatitis BHow long does the Hepatitis B vaccine last (3 vaccines)?15 yearsHerpes Zoster; chicken pox, cow pox, small pox; leads to ___________ in immuno-suppressed individualsShinglesAn inaccurate insertion, current is in the wrong place results in?miss pore, miss follicleHairs that grow back; mistake by electrologist result in?True regrowthBest stage for treating curly hair?Early anagen (early curly)Best stage for treating straight hair?Late anagen (straight late)30% (min) alcohol =Astringent/Antiseptic70% alcohol =Disinfectant/Germicide90% alcohol =Absolute = NOEach person is different; each person reacts to treatment and heals differently refers to?Individual variationWhere are the Dermal Papilla and Matrix located?Critical levelIf ¾ of the follicle is killed; the oil gland survives, the dermal papilla and matrix are destroyed (located at the critical level) and the connective tissue is destroyed what have you achieved?Invisible scar (perfect insertion)The state of being free from biological contaminants, promote or induce asepsis in an operative field, elimination of infection is the goal of asepsis, not sterilityAsepsisThe process on inhibiting the growth and multiplication of the microorganismAntisepsisDirect contact with blood, high levels of disinfection are requiredCritical ItemsIntermediate level of disinfection is essentialSemi-critical ItemsDirect contact with unbroken skin, sanitation is normal but disinfection is preferred, it is enough to clean electrical cords by soap and water only.Noncritical ItemsWhat is the purpose of the insulated needle?Protect the epidermis from damageWhat was created to prevent over insertion?Bulbous ProbeIf nothing changes and you switch to an insulated needle?The needle tip will become hotterThermolysis heat production is produced by?ConductionA photons state of equilibrium (close orbit)Metastable stateFirst person to perform selective photo thermolysis = Laser hair removalRox AndersonAble to produce stimulated emission when it is excited by an additional lightGain/Lasing MediumAll hair removal lasers are _________ waveLongIf you do not have protective goggles you can substitute?Non reflective metal platesMinimum spot size for hair removal is?7-10 mmBigger spot size =Deeper penetrationBigger wave length =Deeper penetrationThe amount of energy per square area (measured in joules)?Density of EnergyDensity of energy = j/cm2 = rate of energy delivered within a given area, measured in joules/cm2?FluenceLaser hair removal = selectively heating only the target using a specific wavelength to heat the target onlySelective photo thermolysisModality of electrolysis that brought about laser hair removalThermolysisNumber of pulses per second, measured in hertzRepetition RateThe amount of time it takes for a given heated tissue to lose 50% of its heat by diffusionThermal Relaxation Time = (TRT)Result of excessive joules, laser bruisePurpuraHIPPA =Health Information Patient Privacy ActHow long must you wait to perform laser on a patient who is on Accutane ____________ ? (once they stop)180 days/6monthsIf a client is on blood thinners and would like a laser treatment they must?Clearance from MDClients on antibiotics = Tetracycline (VERY photosensitive) must wait ___________ before laser treatment.2 weeksPositive clinical manifestation to proper laser hair removal (normal response to hair removal)?Perifollicular Erythema, Perifollicular EdemaYou should not treat brown light vellus hair because the laser cannot see it; stimulates the growth, you must treat the area where the hair is located or you can create?Paradoxil HypertrichosisApplication of cold packsConstricts blood vesselsFire extinguishers should be located?Inside the roomIf a hirsute patient has requested a referral to a physician the electrologist can recommend a physician who specializes in?EndocrinologyAn unusual degree of hirsutism in women may be a cause of?HyperandrogenismAn enlargement of the skin due to the multiplication of cells?HypertrophyStratified squamous epithelium is also known as?EpidermisWhich of the following factors is LEAST important in the cause of hair growth? a.) ethnicity b.) congential c.) medication d.) ageAgeGermination of hair shaft by cell division (mitosis) occurs in the?MatrixThe name of the process during which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half?MeiosisA microorganism that causes disease is called?PathogensWhich of the following is the most common form of cancer?Basal cell carcinomaWhich of the following hormones is produced and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? a.) ADH b.) LSH c.) TSH d.) ACTHADHThe function of the parathyroid gland?Regulates calcium in the bloodThe stage of hair growth where the hair begins to separate from the follicle is?CatagenHirsutism can occur as a side effect, if you use one of the following?SteroidsThe term idiopathic hirsutism refer to?Hair growth of unknown originA correct statement about ambosexual hair is that: a.) most types of female hair problems b.) only in females c.) only in males d.) in both sexesIn both sexesIn regard to the number of hair follicles present in both sexes which of the following statements is correct?Males and females have essentially the same numberThe study of microscopic structures of tissue?HistologyImbricated cells (fish scales) = no pigment, protects the cortex, interlocks with the inner root sheath, outermost layer of hair are located where on the hair?CuticleLarge loosely connected keratinized cells, air spaces which determine sheen and color tone by reflection of light, inner most layer?MedullaSignificant part of hair, gives hair its strength and elasticity, elongated keratinized cells, pigment gives hair its color, middle layer of hair?CortexSecretes melatoninPineal glandProduces hormones that affect other glandsPituitary glandProduces hormones that contain iodineThyroidMaintains constant level of calcium in the bloodParathyroidInvolved in development of immune system cellThymusProduce steroidsAdrenal glandsMaintains a balance of sugar in the bloodPancreasProduce the sex steroids estrogensOvariesProduce the sex steroids androgensTestesA client states that she is taking a drug for high blood pressure and that this drug has caused hirsutism. She could be taking?MinoxidilThe name of the law that combines volts, current and resistance is?Ohm'sA disorder affecting women that is caused by over-production of androgens is called?PCOSHair follicles are found in the?Dermis, epidermis and subdermisWhich of the following sequences lists hair follicle layers in their correct order from within outward? a.) dermal sheath, vitreous membrane, Huxley's layer, Henle's layer b.) medulla, cortex, Henle's layer, Huxley's layer, dermal sheath c.) outer root sheath, Henle's layer, Huxley's layer, dermal sheath d.) hair cuticle, sheath cuticle, Huxley's layer, Henle's layerHair cuticle, sheath cuticle, Huxley's layer, Henle's layerBlood vessels are normally found in the?Dermis and subcutisThe steroid DHEA and the hormone cortisol are found in the?Cortex of the adrenal glandNo new hair follicles are formed in the human skin after?PubertyThe first conspicuous change in the hair pattern on humans which become terminal and gradually replaces vellus hair?PubertyIn the underside of the arm, the glands that enlarge and their functions start at adolescence?Apocrine glandWhich of the following compounds is known to cause increased stress or aggravating reactions?CaffeineNerves that carry impulses to the nerve centers?AfferentWhat hormone is increasing sugar in the blood?GlucogonThe most important part of the hair which contains pigment is?CortexAny topical preparation that must be administered prior to treatment should have a base that is?Non-oilyIn positioning a patient for treating the dorsal area of the foot, the electrologist should have the patient?Lie supine or sit on a treatment tableThe sharing of the same follicle by two active hairs is known as?Pili-multigeminiA too deep insertion usually results in significant re-growth in electrolysis methods EXCEPT?Galvanic (DC)To minimize the risk of HIV, it is important to avoid?Exposure to body fluidsHair density rating refers to?The number of hairs per square cmAn allergic reaction causing wheals, redness and itching?UrticariaThe point of the electrolysis probe should be?BluntIn using an electrolysis modality to start the heating from the tip of the needle you must?Use shortwave HF or thermolysisHairs grow out of the depression in the?EpidermisThe majority of the hair shaft consists of the?CortexWhich of the following body system is least involved in heat regulation of the skin?Nervous systemSebum secreted by the sebaceous gland is generally secreted into the?Hair follicleHair growth is directly determined by?Cell division in the follicleYou are seeing a new patient who is exhibiting signs of melasma, you should advise the patient that the treatment could cause?DiscolorationUse of too large of a needle can result in?PetechiaeThe effectiveness of applying some drugs topically is related to what skin function?AbsorptionThe disease in which the skin becomes progressively hard and thick is called?SclerodermaAll the following are characteristics of the epidermis except that is? a.) contains melanin and keratin b.) highly vascular c.) distinctly stratified d.) gives rise to sebaceous and sudoriferous glandsHighly vascularWhich characteristic of the needle is an important factor in the degree and distribution of the electrical action around it?LengthThe electrology needle that is designed to deliver current to the lower part of the follicle and papilla is the?InsulatedThe 2 primary targets for permanent hair destruction are the?Bulge and papillaWhich of the following skin conditions is not a contraindication to treatment?Acne rosaceaMost body hair grows at what angle?45 degreesThe condition called folliculitis is best described as?Staphylococcal infection of the epidermisAll of the following are considered to be good conductors of electricity except? a.) saliva b.) gold c.) silver d.) distilled waterDistilled waterHypertrichosis can be caused by all the following except? a.) constant rubbing of the skin b.) a wound scar c.) a drug for seizures d.) shavingShavingYou are seeing a patient and notice a cluster of small pustules on their cheek, and is about the size of a penny. The patient tells you that this eruption appeared 8 months ago in the same spot and cleared by itself. The condition is most likely?Herpes simplexWhich of the following are exclusively diseases/disorders caused by a virus? a.) impetigo, warts, gonorrhea, AIDS, hepatitis b.) herpes, verruca, hepatitis, AIDS, molluscum contagiosum c.) verruca, folliculitis, hepatitis, AIDS, chicken pox d.) hepatitis, impetigo, chicken pox, AIDS, molluscum contagiosumHerpes, verruca, hepatitis, AIDS, molluscum contagiosumWater warts, viral; very common in childrenMolluscum ContagiosumWhile working on the chin you notice increased regrowth, in order to deliver more destructive heat energy to the follicle without raising the temperature of the tissue or increasing pain you should?Use an insulated probeThe epidermis consists of a lower layer where cells multiply and rise to the surface of the skin while manufacturing?KeratinThe layer of skin composed of a thicker, living cell later with a thin, outer, dead, and horny layer is?EpidermisWhen a patient with a communicable disease insists on being treated, you should?Defer treatment and explain whyWhat minimum concentration of alcohol is required for the effective use of disinfection?70%Which of the following is most heat resistant?Bacterial sporesWhich of the following best describes the priper use of an autoclave for sterilizing electrolysis instruments? a.) 250F @ 15PSI for 15-20min b.) 450F @ 10PSI for 15min c.) 200F @PSI for 25min d.) 220F @20PSI for 10min250F @ 15PSI for 15-20minThe one statement that is true of viruses is that they?Are the smallest living organisms that can grow at low temperaturesThe most common symptoms and signs of AIDS related complex are?Enlarged lymph nodes, K.S. and PCPA correct statement regarding bacteria is that they can cause?Folliculitis and impetigoFind the truest sentences are bacteria: a.) the certain bacteria contain wall nucleolus, and causes warts and herpes b.) is a microorganism which can be observed by ordinary microscope and cause viral disease c.) the bacteria are a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms d.) there are approximately 5 nonillion bacteria on earth and some of them can produce AIDSThe bacteria are a large group of single-celled, prokaryote microorganismsRe-growth that results from insufficient current will?Take longer to appear because a new follicle must be recontructedAfter epilating the absence of any type of skin effect may indicate?Current used was mild and only the weakest hairs were removedIf all other factors are constant a probe with a smaller diameter will have a heating pattern that is?More concentratedWhich of the following units is a function of current flow and voltage?OhmThe method of follicle destruction in which a form of AC causes a point effect to be produced in the tissue surrounding the probe is known as?ThermolysisThe process in which destruction of the hair follicle occurs when DC is used to convert sodium chloride to sodium hydroxide is?ElectrolysisWhich of the following is not a factor in the choice of a treatment?Hair lengthA shallow needle insertion will result in?More intense heating patternThe point at which hair will slip out easily while providing maximum comfort to the patient is?Pain thresholdCurrent that does not have constant voltage or constant polarity is?AlternatingThe device used to either step up or down voltage of alternating current is called a? a.) converter b.) rectifier c) oscillator d.) transformerTransformerA device that regulates the strength of a current is a? a.) fuse b.) rheostat c.) converter d.) filterRheostatBlanching or whitening of the epidermis on the surface surrounding the needle is evidence of over treatment using which modality?ThermolysisIn use of thermolysis, pitted scaring can be avoided by employing which of the following measures? a.) use a larger diameter probe, decrease timing and increase intensity, and avoid shallow insertions b.) use a large diameter probe, decrease timing and intensity, and avoid shallow insertions c.) use a smaller diameter probe, decrease timing and intensity, and avoid shallow insertions d.) use a smaller diameter probe, increase timing and intensity, and avoid shallow insertionsUse a smaller diameter probe, decrease timing and intensity, and avoid shallow insertionsIn the use of thermolysis pulsing can be used to achieve all of the following except to? a.) help diminish the sensation of pain b.) provide almost 50% less re-grown compared with the single pulse c.) increase the effective timing range on machines that have a short timing of the epilator when used on automatic timing d.) increase the total amount of heat energy delivered to the follicleHelp diminish the sensation of painThe dark shiny substance on the end of a properly epilated dark anagen hair is?Hair bulbBlend electrolysis utilizes a combination of?DC and ACWhen electrolysis is being performed on a patient the depth to which the needle should generally be inserted is to the average depth of the?Anagen hairThe point effect determines the actual pattern of destruction most used in which of the following types of modalities?ThermolysisYou have 2 identical follicles and assuming galvanic current is being used; a current of 0.1ma flows for 4 minutes in each follicle, standing probes are used and all other variables are the same except for depth of insertion, follicle A at full depth and follicle B at half depth which of the following statements is correct? a.) an equal amount of sodium hydroxide is produced in each follicle and the surrounding tissue b.) more sodium hydroxide is produced in follicle A and its surrounding tissue c.) more sodium hydroxide is produced in follicle B and its surrounding tissue d.) much less sodium hydroxide will be produced in follicle A because it does not touch the dermal papillaAn equal amount of sodium hydroxide is produced in each follicle and the surrounding tissuePost treatment skin irruption should be treated with?Denatured alcohol (70%)When considering the positioning of equipment in your treatment room you should keep in mind that electrical equipment should be kept and used away from?SinksThe US government agency that is responsible for approval for shortwave epilators is the?Federal Communication Commission (FCC)The frequency unit that is defined as the number of complete cycles per second is?HertzThe treatment room electrical equipment should always have?3 wire grounded power supplyCorrect functioning of a short-wave or thermolysis epilator can be determined by?Using the light testAfter probe selection, the electrologists first priority is to determine the?Depth of the anagen hairs in the treatment areaThe ___________________ is not present where there are hair folliclesStratum lucidumIn viewing the shaving case, you will see hairs in?All phases of growth__________ alcohol is an antiseptic while __________ is a disinfectant30%, 70%Acne is an inflammatory condition of the?Sebaceous glandsDocumentation of a patient is of importance because?Poor documentation may result in the appearance of malpractice, negligence fraud and abuseWhen an ingrown hair is tweezed from an infected follicleThe follicle mouth can heal closed, trapping pusA brown macule that may be acquired at any age?FreckleAdult condition caused by chicken poxHerpes zosterA ____________ is a newly formed early anagen hair that remains in a treated follicleTombstoneThe most painful area on the body is generally?On the center lineWhen viewing the kinky hair, it most likely comes from?A curved follicleThe adrenal cortex produces hormones called?SteroidsThe acronym for LASER stands for?Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiationPsoriasis is a disease that exhibits:Red patches covered with silvery patchesA honey colored serous crust at the follicle mouth indicates:Normal healing is taking placeWhich layer of the hair has imbrications?CuticleWhere is the reticular layer found?DermisWhat is laser light?Monochromatic light___________________ is characterized by the enlargement of the hands, feet, and face caused by an over secretion of the pituitary gland hormoneAcromegalyLight absorption is required for an effect in tissue. Without absorption, no affect or damage can be observed. This is known as?Grothus Draper law_____________, ____________, hairs are associated with the deepest folliclesTerminal, greyAll are reasons for regrowth except? a.) not enough current b.) incorrect insertion c.) HF blowout d.) probe too thickProbe too thickWhich of the following is not associated with the pilosebaceous unit?Sudoriferous glandAll are terms used to describe the second layer of the skin except? a.) true skin b.) corium c.) dermis d.) subcutisSubcutisSelect the phase of mitosis where the nucleus is resting? a.) telophase b.) anaphase c.) metaphase d.) interphaseInterphaseWhich of the following drugs increase photosensitivity? a.) accutane b.) lidocaine c.) polyurethane d.) benzocaineAccutaneThe deepest stage of hair growth is?Anagen 6The most numerous type of pathogenic bacteria are?Rod shappedAn example of a vascular tumor is?HemangiomaSterilizers should be checked and tested?Each monthAll are appendages of the skin except? a.) hair b.) nails c.) sebaceous glands d.) pineal glandsPineal glandsA _________ has a tough outer covering to resist heat, cold and disinfectantsSporeA requirement for footed switches that directly pulse the laser is that they be?HoodedWhen sterilizing unpackaged instruments, you must use _______PSI for ________ minutes a.) 15, 20 b.) 20, 30 c.) 20, 15 d.) 5, 1515, 20An example of a ductless gland is:ParathyroidDevelopment of secondary male characteristics in a female is called?ViralismTwo or more hairs with separate papillas sharing the same follicle is called?Pili-multigeminiThis condition is also known as PCOSStein-Leventhal SyndromeAll are generally insensitive areas except? a.) the back of the neck b.) the area near a scar c.) the center line d.) the elbowThe center lineA female patient (Fitzpatrick II) has had five full body treatments. She states that her legs are not responding. The examination reveals she still has fairly dark coarse hairs on her lower legs. the rest of the treatment areas show only sporadic patches of very light brown terminal hairs remaining. She has had no adverse reaction to any of the treatments and has not changed any medications. An alexandrite laser was used with an 18mm spot size, 14 joules and cryogen at 20/30. Select the most appropriate action: a.) make no changes and explain hair growth cycles b.) adjust spot size to 15mm and increase fluence c.) adjust fluence higher for legs d.) adjust fluence higher for the entire body if pain tolerance permitsAdjust fluence higher for legsSelect the method of indirect transmission of infection called a "vector" a.) a sneeze b.) contact with blood c.) a tick bite d.) contact with mucous membranesA tick biteThe layer that influences the color tone of hair by reflecting lightMedullaA cancer that begins in the melanocytes and spreads to internal organsMelanomaRetinal hazard is possible at which of the following wavelengths?400-1400nmIt is important to advise patients which of the following after laser treatment?Avoid sunKnown as the "mask of pregnancy"?MelasmaSaprophytes live on?Dead matterSelect the hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary or "master gland"? a.) Islets of Langerhans, ACTH, thyrotropin b.) androgens, ACTH, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids c.) thyrotropin, ACTH, gonadotropins d.) gonadotropins, glucocorticoids, androgensThyrotropin, ACTH, gonadotropinsWhen shaping the neckline, the goal is to produce what type of an effect?IrregularA red-brown rough scaling macule caused by sun exposureActinic KeratosisThe causes of hirsutism include which of the following? a.) pituitary hypersecretion b.) adrenal tumors c.) ovarian tumors d.) all are correctPituitary hypersecretion, adrenal tumors and ovarian tumorsAll are symptoms of Cushing's syndrome except (excessive cortisol)? a.) dowagers hump b.) moon face c.) amenorrhea d.) blindnessBlindnessAll are associated with the lymphatic system except: a.) fights disease b.) only found in the lymph nodes c.) sift impurities from the blood d.) all are correctFights disease, only found in the lymph nodes, and sift impurities from the bloodRound shaped bacteria connected in chains are called?StreprococcusSelect the wavelength of a long-pulsed Ruby laser694nmWhat two categories is HSV (herpes simplex virus) divided into?Type 1 above the waist; Type II below the waistWhat is the function of mitochondria?Provides energy on a cellular levelExcess hair growth on any part of the body which is more than usual and found on individuals of the same sex, age and ethic background in known as?HypertrichosisWhat classification of disease identifies the nerve cell as its host cell?HerperoviralGenerally speaking, people of what ethnicity have more hair? a.) greek b.) caucasian c.) scandinavian d.) asianGreekLonger laser wavelengths:Penetrate moreThe voluntary nationally recognized group establishing standards of goggles is?American National Standards Institute (ANSI)A chemical agent that can destroy most bacteria and slow down its multiplication is called?AstrigentWhen working on the face and neck, the hairline should look natural from a distance of2-3 ftThe term idiopathic hirsutism refers to?Hair growth of an unknown originAn enlargement of the skin due to multiplication of cellsHypertrophyThe function of the parathyroid gland is? (decrease calcium, increase phosphate)Regulates calcium in the bloodIn regard to the number of hair follicles present in both sexes which statement is correct?Males and females have essentially the same numberMicroorganisms that cause disease are called?PathogensWho is considered the "Father of Lasers" in medicine?Leon GoldmanA nanometer is?1 billionth of a meterAn irritating, vesicular skin eruption of systemic origin is known as?EczemaWhat type of diabetes is always insulin dependant?Type ISkin inflammation or redness that occurs as a normal reaction to tissue injury is?ErythemaA person with a goiter will have increased secretion of?Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)In positioning a patient for a patient for treating the dorsal area of the foot, the electrologist should have the patientLie supine or sit on treatment tableTrue statements about a client's health history assessment record include which of the following? a.) it provides an accurate record of the body areas treated b.) it contains the clients signature and verification of the health history c.) it enables the electrologist to plan the clients treatment and to evaluate progress and outcomes d.) all of the above are correctIt provides an accurate record of the body areas treated, it contains the clients signature and verification of the health history, and it enables the electrologist to plan the clients treatment and to evaluate progress and outcomesThe measure of time that the light in is contact with the target is?Pulse durationA virusNeeds a host cell to reproduceIn Florida, the use of gloved fingers to apply ointment or cream isProhibitedThe electrologist must explain all of these before treatment except? a.) hair growth cycles b.) modality used c.) fee charged d.) blood borne pathogensBlood borne pathogensSterilized towels are to be storedIn a dry enclosed cabinetThe body's ability to resist invasion and destory bacteria is known as?ImmunityBacteria that move freely from place to place (bacilli) are said to beMobileA patient must understand that permanent hair removal is a process that requires time and that it will takeA series of treatmentsTo help project a professional appearance it is important for the electrologist to wearA uniformTreatment of African American patients requires extra caution because their skin is more likely toDevelop keloidsPost treatment home care instructions for electrology patients include a recommendation to?Stay out of the sun for several daysThe average time for a tweezed hair to reappear?5-6 weeksWhich of the following are known to increase stress or aggravate reaction? a.) lactose b.) citrus c.) antiflatulent d.) caffeineCaffieneHair grows out of a depression in the epidermis known as?FollicleHair density refers to?The number of hairs per square centimeterEdema is the result of?Serum and lymph passing through vessel walls into tissue_______________ is partly inherited and partly developed through hygienic practicesNatural immunitySelect the correct functions of the skin: a.) sensation, elimination, excretion, absorption, waste removal, distribution of heat b.) protection, maintain body temperature, distribution of heat, excretion, elimination, sensation c.) absorption, elimination, heat regulation, removal wastes, protection, sensation d.) elimination, protection, excretion, sensation, absorption, heat regulationElimination, protection, excretion, sensation, absorption, heat regulationThe immunization against HBV lasts (when taken appropriately)15 yearsA 45 year old patient has been treated 3 times for terminal hair on her chin. Before the forth treatment, she complains the treatments are not working. The electrologist should? a.) reassure her and begin treatment b.) explain that sometimes more than 10 treatments are required c.) suggest she see an endocrinologist before further treatment d.) ask if she has changed any medications, explain hair growth cycles, clearly explain how electrolysis works and begin treatmentAsk if she has changed any medications, explain hair growth cycles, clearly explain how electrolysis works and begin treatmentThe use of excessive laser fluences may result in?PurpuraName the five layers of the epidermisGerminativum, Spinosum, Granulosum, Lucidum, CorneumWhere does vellus hair begin its regrowth?Lobe of the sebaceous glandThese glands share a pore with ambosexual hairApocrineThe highest level of disinfection is?SterilizationWhenever the field of influence of a given amount of current is concentrated into a small area its effect on the tissue is proportionatelyIncreasedThe most important function of skin is?ProtectionProvides the nutrients and blood supply for the hairPapilla (dermal)Located in the bulb, mitosis occurs for hairMatrixHair starts its growth at the follicleTerminalHair starts its growth at the lobe of the sebaceous glandVellusGrowing stage, progressive, active phase; hair follicle is the deepest, Stage REQUIRED to kill hair, hair is closest to the dermal papilla and the hair is the darkest, has 6 stagesAnagenTransition stage between growth and rest stage (phase), the papilla suddenly separates and withdraws from the matrix, RegressiveCatagenResting stage, dormant, club hair has no nourishment, easy to pull out, follicle shrinks by 2/3rdsTelogenFunctions of the hair?Protection, protection from friction, warmthThe nine locations are rated from 0 to 4; A method for evaluating and quantifying Hirsutism in womenFerriman - GallweyInside, ductless, secretesEndoGlands = mechanics of exchanges between blood, skin, and cells, "thermostat for your whole body"CrineOutside, ducts, excrete = sweat, oil, milkExoAll the organs of the endocrine system areGlandsAll the organs of the endocrine system are glands, they _____________ hormones into the lymph or blood stream, glands of internal secretionSecreteAll the hormones produced by the Endocrine system haveTarget organsPrincipal hormone we can not live withoutT3Sits behind the stomach, hormonal cells called Islets of Langerhans, secrete the hormones Insulin and GlucagonPancreasHormone which raises blood sugar to help convert glycogen to glucose in the liverGlucagonOnly __________ decreases sugar in the body (blood)InsulinInsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus is which type of diabetes?Type INon-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus = in adults = loss of sensitivity to body's own insulin = Insulin resistant is which type of diabetes?Type IIDarkening of the armpits, back of neck and upper armsAcanthosis NigricansSecrete sex steroidsGonadsBlood pressure medication - can cause hypertrichosisMinoxidil (rogain)Epilepsy medication - can cause hypertrichosisDilantin3-dimensional big bruiseEcchymosis2-dimensional bruise = LASER BRUISEPurpuraPin point bruisePetechiaeSymptoms you can not see = itching and burning sensationSubjectiveSymptoms you can see = appears on the surface of skin = RashObjectiveHighly contagious, found mainly on the face and hands, and on the mouth and nostrils of children, caused by Staphylococci or Streptococci, fresh lesions that appear daily and spread oozing of serum with vesicles that ooze and form yellowish crustsImpetigoInflammation of one or more hair follicles which produces small boils (pustules) caused by StaphylococciFolliculitisAlso known as "ringworm"; small redden patch of vesicles that spread outward and heal in the centerTineaHives, itchy response to an allergen, causes cells to release histaminesUrticariaChronic systemic autoimmune disease; hardening of skinSclerodermaWart, skin tumorVerrucaAsymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, Evolving/EpilationMelanoma ABCDE'sPrecursor to melanomaActinic KeratosisRazor bumps, ingrown hairsPseudofolliculitis BarbaeThe ends of the neuron, sends information to other cellsTerminal branchesTired nerves; with continuous stimulation, the nerves tire and do not fire as fast, temporary inability to fire as fastSynapse FatigueSensory = send impulses to the brain (CNS)AfferentMotor = receive impulses from the brain (CNS) to musclesEfferentDistraction, diverting the client from thinking about the pain, Suggestion, alter patients' attitudeAlphagenic InductionVein, Vena Cava = Largest vein in the bodyRight Atrium (RA)Artery = Aorta, Largest Artery in the bodyLeft Ventricle (LV)The human body contains ________ cells = white blood cells that initiate immune response to infectionsCD4Organism that can cause diseaseMicrobial OrganismA place where a microorganism can thrive and reproduceReservoirThe process of removing or adding elections to an energy systemIonizationReadily conducts the flow of electrons when there is electrical pressure in a given direction; it's a substance that allows electricity (current) to pass through; i.e-copper, zinc, brass, gold, carbon + water (sometimes)ConductorDoesn't transmit electricity at all unless the amount of electricity to which it is subjected exceeds a certain limit; a material or device that prevents or reduces the passage of electricity; i.e- rubber, plastic, glass, asbestos, STEAM, distilled water (minerals, contaminants removed so that there are limited conductors in water)InsulatorElectricity at rest and excess of electronsStaticElectricity in motion through a conductor or vacuumDynamicCurrent can't flow along a wire withoutVoltage (pressure)A natural magnet made of magnetite, points northLodestoneA device for controlling the quantity of current flowing through a circuitRheostatDevice that transfers electrical energy from one alternating circuit to another with a change in voltage, current, phase or impendence, device for changing voltage (pressure)TransformerChanges AC to HF = alternating current to high frequency currentOscillatorA device used for turning an alternating current into direct current = Converter = InverterRectifierWhat is removing hair by chemical decompositionGalvanic ElectrolysisWhen NaOH = Sodium Hydroxide = Lye = Alkali; and by product: Hydrogen Gas = H2 are producedThe needle is the negative poleWhen HCL = Hydrocholoric Acid = Acid and by product: Chlorine Gas = Cl2 are producedIndifferent electrode is a positive electrode, a positive poleAmount of electrons that flow into a surrounding tissue = ma/areaCurrent Density (CD)Strength of the current flowing from the probe to surrounding tissueCurrent IntensityThe length of time the current flows from the probe into surrounding tissueCurrent DurationForcing of a liquid through an unbroken membrane = electrotherapyPhoresisSeparation of the dermis from the epidermisNikolsky's SignThe frequency that the FCC gives for electrolysis machines in the US (wavelengths)13.56 mhzAt some point based on the patients pain threshold or skin tolerance level you will reach the optimum setting; The treatment energy required to successfully epilate hair = current intensity (ma) and duration of current flow (sec)Working PointWhipped or mixed action which forces the hot lye through the porous coagulated tissueTurbulenceProduces pores, causes protein to congeal into a whitish spongy texture, wider more thorough pattern of destruction; enables galvanic lye to invade tissue it could not otherwise accessPorositySpeeds up the chemical action of the sodium hydroxide on tissue; heat from high frequency DOUBLES the speed of action *Requires ¼ the amount of lyeIncreased CausticityMicrobes that obtain their food from dead or decaying matterSaprophytesProkaryotic; no nucleus is present , vegetable in nature, can be viewed under an ordinary microscope. They grow together in the thousands to form a mass called a colonyBacteriaGrow in chains; causes pus like strep throat and blood poisoningStreptococciGrow in clusters like grapes, causes pus like folliculitisStaphylococciRod shaped; most common pathogenic bacteria; most deadly; hardest to killBacilliSuit of amour for bacteriaSporeCannot reproduce on their own; they require a host cell; not able to be seen under an ordinary microscope, needs an electron microscope; not conquered by antibiotics; can replicate your DNA so the body struggles to distinguish between ordinary cells and infected cellsVirusBiological = Tuberculosis biological square test must be done?MonthlyRoutine housekeeping to prevent the spread of disease, infection controlAsepsisAn indentation of the epidermis into the dermisFollicleFace upSupineFace downProneEyebrows hairSuperciliaEar hairTragiAxilla hairHirciUsually the needle is inserted between?Hair and the follicle; connective tissue and follicle; connective tissue and outer root sheathProbe penetrates outside the root sheath; broken probe; bleeding, bruising, infection, numbness, pitted scars, petechiaProbe injuryRegulates workplace safetyOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Regulates disease prevention and controlCenters for Disease Control (CDC)Regulates medical devices & radiation-emitting devices (laser)Food and Drug Administration (FDA)Regulates radio waves or wavelength of epilatorFederal Communication Commission (FCC)Safeguarding the environmentEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA)Recommendations issued by CDC for minimizing the risk of transition of blood pathogens by health care and public safety workersStandard/Universal PrecautionsA process intended to kill all microorganisms including most endospores (but not all spores). It is the highest level of microbial destruction that is possible to achieve.SterilizationSteam (autoclave) for unpackaged instruments250F, 15-20min, 15psiSteam (autoclave) for packaged instruments250F, 30min, 15psiDry Heat at 340F for ______ hour or 320F for ______ hours1, 2Refers to the use of liquid chemicals on surfaces and at room temperature to kill all microorganisms causing diseaseDisinfectionThe foundation of Aseptic techniqueSanitationSmallest particle of lightPhotonThe visible light spectrum ranges between400-700 nmMultigenetic/Carcinogenic light = Ionizing = Ultraviolet, X-ray, Gamma Rays, UVA/UVB = wave lengths are shorter = the smaller the number the shorter the wave length - is light below what spectrum?400nmInfrared = NON-Ionizing = Radio frequency, Laser, Esthetics = microwaves = the wave lengths are longer = the larger the number the longer the wave length - is light above what spectrum?700nmDistance measured in meters = distance between two peaks or two lows or two trophsWavelengthLight travels in ___________ = speed of lightNanometers = nm = 1 billionth of a meterPart of the molecule responsible for color reflectedChromophoreTraditional light; light of many colors, light of many wavelengths, ex = sunlight = and IPLPolychromatic = (poly = many)Light of one (specific) color, light of one (specific) wavelength = laserMono chromatic = (mono = one)The creation of a new photon of light, resulting from a chain reaction involving the collision of other protonsAmplificationThe process whereby a newly created photon of light (generated through amplification) acquires energy equal to the protons that created it, then travels in the same directionStimulated EmissionLight is one color, one wave length = IPLMonochromacyUniform action = in phase = in resonance = laserCoherent wavesNon laser device = 590 - 1200 nm = incoherent LED lightIPLLight waves are parallel; not divergent; very intense, going straight downCollimationPart of the laser that absorbs and stores energyActive mediumRuby = Runs at694 nmAlexandrite (ALEX) = Runs at755nmYttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) = ND YAG Runs at __________ (hair removal)1064nmER YAG Runs at ___________ (skin resurfacing)2940nmAs the nm laser number gets bigger the chromophore/target becomes?WaterNumber of wave length must be on the goggle =Optical DensityDestruction of hair without surface damagePhoto OblationPulsed duration is measured inMilliseconds = msLegal document to ensue that a patient or client knows all the risks and costs involved in TxInformed ConsentThe highest setting the skin can tolerate without damage?Fluence Threshold (FT)The highest setting the patient can tolerate without treatment becoming impossiblePain Threshold (PT)Amount of hair per one square centimeterHair DensityLack of vitamin _______ causes prolonged bleeding on a woundKLaser light is ______________ radiation; Has no known mutagenic potentialNon-ionizingRetinal hazard range is? (visible and near infrared light)400-1400nmThe body part most vulnerable/sensitive to laser damage is?EyeContraindication to the perianal region (farts)CH4 = Methane gasUltraviolet rays from sunlight react with the amino acid tyrosine found in the melanocytes and produce?MelaninPeople with dark skin have more melanocytes that are more active and produce more?MelaninAs the body's largest sensory organ, the skin has multiple functions, including protection, heat regulation, excretion, secretion, absorption, sensation, and the synthesis of?Vitamin DThe germinal layer, particularly the ___________________, contains melanin-producing melanocytes that protect the body from harmful ultraviolet radiation.Stratum GerminativumThe skin plays a vital role in maintaining the body's temperature and?HomeostasisLangerhans cells are dendritic cells in the epidermis that have an?Immunologic functionLangerhans cells are identical to?Tissue macrophagesThe interface between the epidermis and dermis is called the?Basement membraneSkin appendages are epidermally derived but, except for __________, are located in the dermis.NailsAfter using Retin-A a client must wait __________ before laser treatment2 weeksThe most common treatment for wartsCryosurgery (liquid nitrogen)After using Accutane a client must wait __________ before laser treatment6 months______________________ is common after dermabrasionHypo/HyperpigmentationWhen the growing hair has reached its full length, the ____________ phase ends and the ____________ phase begins with the cessation of melanin production of the melanocytes in the upper part of the bulbAnagen, CatagenWhen the tip of the dermal papilla shortens and the matrix ceases to form the medulla the hair is in which growing phase?CatagenThe most important hormone controlling growth are androgens commonly known as males hormones. The most important one is?TestosteroneOnce vellus hair has been transformed into terminal hair, it cannot be changed back even if _____________ disappear. Therefore, hirsutism must be treated promptly to minimize the number of terminal hairs induced by the excess _______________.AndrogensElectrolysis should not be performed until hormonal therapy has been used for at least _____________. Otherwise, it will result in an endless "chasing" of new coarse hairs throughout the body.6 monthsSexual hair, i.e., facial, ear, chest, abdominal, pubic and axillary, is hormone dependent and this hormone is primarily?TestosteroneThe two major classes of hormones are?Nonsteroid and steroidCells acted on by hormones are called?Target cellsOrgans containing target cells are called?Target organsDecreases the blood calcium concentration by inhibiting breakdown of bone, which would release calcium into the blood?ThyroidIncreases blood calcium concentration by increasing the breakdown of bone with the release of calcium into the blood?ParathyroidHormones epinephrine (Epi), or adrenaline, and norepinephrine (NR) are produced where?Adrenal medullaBetween 1 in 10 and 1 in 20 women of child bearing age may be affected by?PCOS60-80% of hirsutism is due toPCOSOverall, 20-50% of patients with ____________ will be defined as "obese"PCOSApproximately one-half of patients with _____________ demonstrate insulin resistancePCOSThe ________________ has adopted these infection prevention standards for the practice of Electrolysis standards as part of our commitment to the protection of both our practitioners and the public.American Electrology Association (AEA)A commercially prepared device with a known population of highly resistant bacterial spores used to test the method of sterilization being monitoredBiological indicatorThe instruments or objects that com in direct contact with the blood stream or other normally sterile areas of the body. ____________________ Must be pre-sterilized, single use and disposable or subjected to sterilization before use.Critical itmesA process capable of inactivating most bacteria, some viruses and fungi but not bacterial spores or mycobacterium tuberculosis var.bovis (TB)Low-level disinfectionA person who removes hair by means of an electric current applied with a solid wire filament or electrodeElectrologistA low level hospital grade disinfectant is used to cleanEnvironmental surfacesEpilator cords are considered to be _____________ itemsNon criticalIndifferent electrode is the ____________ polePositiveThe stainless steal bar held by the client during electrolysis treatments to complete electric current circuit with galvanic/electrolysis modality or with the use of a timer delay switch in automatic delivery epilators.Indifferent electrodeThe indifferent electrode is considered a ___________ itemNon criticalTweezers should be considered ____________ itemsCriticalThe instrument used during electrolysis treatments to remove the hair from the follicle.Tweezers___________________ containing 60% - 95% alcohol are most effective and higher concentrations are less potent.Alcohol solutionsWhen the _______________ is 3/4 full, seal it securely and follow state and local health regulations for disposalSharps container________________ should be thoroughly cleaned and sterilized before initial use and after use on each client to reduce the risk of transmission of infection and disease.Tweezers________________ registered with the EPA should be used for environmental surface cleaning.Hospital grade disinfectantsWalls, blinds and curtains should be cleaned whenVisibly soiledThe freedom from infection; the prevention of contact with microorganismsAsepsisAn intermediate level or low level hospital grade disinfectant registered with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is used for cleaning non-critical environmental surfaces.Aseptic TechniqueCan live a week on a dry inanimate objectHBVA preparation , usually in the form of gel, foam or rinses, designed for application to the hands for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands. In the United states, such preparations usually contain 60%-95% ethanol or isopropanol.Alcohol based hand rubA ______________ cannot reproduce themselves nor carry on metabolic processes necessary for life unless they are able to invade and parasitize a living cell.VirusWhen ______ alcohol is used to prevent an area of the skin, the electrologist is disinfecting the area, not sterilizing it.70%If a person has been exposed to HBV gets the Hepatitis B vaccine and/or a shot called "HBIG" (Hepatitis B immune globulin) within __________, Hepatitis B infection may be prevented.24 hoursThe Hepatitis C virus can survive outside the body at room temperature, on environmental surfaces, for at least 16 hours but no longer than4 daysA complete written ________ should be taken with every new clientHealth History Assessment (HHA)A virus that can be spread to any opening in the body, do not treat these areasWarts (verucca)The client will need to stop tweezing when having electrolysis performed. The can shave the area, but prepare them for the fact that the amount of hair that they are seeing will ______________ in the beginging.IncreaseA _______________ provides you with personal and medical information about the clientCase historyA person who has type 1 diabetes must take ______________ daily to survive.InsulinA form of glucose intolerance that is diagnosed in some women during pregnancyGestational DiabetesE.g., Styes (eye infection), Boils (hair follicle infection)Bacterial InfectionsE.g., Jock itch, athletes foot, ringworm, vaginal infectionFungal InfectionsOperatory light positioned close to the clinician's sight line for maxillary treatment helps preventMuscular Skeletal Syndrome (MSS)The electrologist has to work "blind", since her object is to destroy tissue sheCannot seeThe electrologist logically selects ________________ hairs to gauge the depth to which she will insert.Late anagen_________________ as we shall use the term is the distance from the surface of the epidermis to the bottom of the bulb.Hair depthBrown spots = PIH =Post inflammatory hyperpigmentationElectrochemical phenomena, seen as small 1mm or less blue to black spots around follicle openings. Caused by connecting the positive electrode to the probe instead of the negative electrode. Disfiguring, permanent.TattooingWhat are the three conditions of laser light?Monochromacy, coherent waves, collimationWhat cells cause hair growth?MatrixWhat is the most important hormone controlling hair growth?AndrogensWhat is fluence?Density of energyWhen are client asks how many treatments are required, how should you respond?Depends on different factorsWhat does the posterior lobe do?Store and release body needsWhen is the follicle an ever changing appendage?During growth and replacement phasesIf someone sweats a lot after a laser treatment, what are they prone to?FolliculitisDistance from the surface of the epidermis to the bottom of the bulbHair depthWhere does cell division for hair take place?Anagen phaseWhere does cell division for skin take place?Stratum GerminatiumWhich system is responsible for flight or flight?Sympathetic Nervous SystemWhat must be stated on the goggles in addition to wavelengths?Optical densityWhat is Pseudofolliculitis barbae?Razor bumps and ingrown hairsWhat are the nanometers (nm) for UVB rays?290nm-320nmWho are the two fathers of laser?Einstein and PlankChemical current, electrical current that flows even and consistent in one directionDirect currentThis is where the chromosomes align in the middleMetaphaseA vesicular skin eruption of synthetic originEczemaWhat is Iatric?MedicationAccelerated heartbeat, secretion of adrenaline and noradrenalineStressWhat are the two types of bacteria?Pathogenic and non-pathogenicPathogenic bacteria are?Harmful, minorityNon-pathogenic bacteria are?Helpful, harmless, majorityWhat are the two major medicine contraindications for laser treatments?Accutane (6mths) and blood thinners (clearance from MD)In orbit around the nucleus with a negative (-) charge?ElectronsWhat type of light is non-ionizing radiation and has no known mutagenic potential?Laser lightWhere can follicles be found?All layers of the skinWhat are the ranges of high frequency?3-30mhzWhat is the first line of protection from exposure to laser generated air born contaminants?Ventilation systemSequentially in blend is?One at a timeSimultaneously in blend is?All togetherWhat are the two ways to deliver the blend method?Sequentially and SimultaneouslyConnected to laser hand piece, blows cold air during exposure to laser?Cold air coolingWhat is a step up transformer?Increases pressure (volts), decreases current (amp)Thermolysis heat production is produced by?ConductionWhat is measured in nanometers (nm)?WavelengthsMitosis phase where cells get bigger/mature (resting)InterphaseMitosis phase where chromosomes are aligned in the middleMetaphaseNumber of chromosomes are reduced by halfMeiosis = Sexual Cell divisionAppendages of the skinHair, hair follicle, nails, sudoriferous sweat glands, and sebaceous oil glandsAn over abundance of hair anywhere on the body; affects both males and femalesHypertrichosisWhat is the master gland?Anterior lobeDeficiency of ADH in posterior lobe; causes the body to produce large amounts of urine; can lead to hypertrichosisDiabetes InsipidusGlucocorticoids (GCs); affects blood glucose and metabolism, increases with stress, anorexia causes certain hair growth on the bodyCortisolReleases Adrenaline, *Adrenaline is released in stressful conditions = Fight or flight = pupil dilation, increased blood to muscles, breathing increasesAdrenal MedullaPurple striateStretch marksControversial/opposite of Addison's DiseaseCushing's DiseaseControversial/opposite Cushing's diseaseAddison's DiseaseBlocks cortisol synthesisVirilism/Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia/Adrenogenital SyndromeToo much cortisol synthesisCushing's DiseaseNot enough cortisol being producedAddison's diseaseCombination of Cushing's + VirilismArchard - Thiers SyndromeSteroid hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in response to tissue damage, regulates blood pressure and blood sugarCortisolSecrete the hormones Insulin and Glucagon in the pancreasIslets of LangerhansDecreases sugar in the body (blood)InsulinThree hormones in the body that increase (raise) the amount of sugar in the body (blood)Glucagon, GH, CortisolPre-Diabetes ConditionAcanthosis NigricansPCOS is also known asStein-Leventhal SyndromePuss is a sign ofInfectionSwelling and redness around a follicle that has been treated; size of a match head to pinky finger; *a problem is indicated if larger than size of thumb*Perifollicular Erythema, Perifollicular EdemaAlso known as "ringworm"; small redden patch of vesicles that spread outward and heal in the centerTineaPrecursor to MelanomaActinic KeratosisAccelerated heartbeat = secretion of adrenaline and noradrenalineStressDistraction, diverting the client from thinking about the pain, Suggestion, alter patients' attitudeAlphagenic InductionComplete cycle of blood, moves through body, heart, and lungs in23 secondsAn atom with the same number of protons and electrons isStableIn orbit around the nucleus and have a negative chargeElectronsReadily conducts the flow of electrons when there is electrical pressure in a given direction; it's a substance that allows electricity (current) to pass through. E.g., copper, zinc, brass, gold, carbon + water (sometimes)ConductorDoesn't transmit electricity at all unless the amount of electricity to which it is subjected exceeds a certain limit; a material or device that prevents or reduces the passage of electricity. E.g., rubber, plastic, glass, asbestos, STEAM, distilled water (minerals, contaminants removed so that there are limited conductors in water)InsulatorBreaks the flow of electricity if the current becomes excessiveCircuit breakerAmpere = Amp isIntensity, strength, amount of flow, rate of flowVolt isPressureWatt isPowerJoule isEnergyIPL utilizes a broad spectrum light source with a general spectral range of?400-1200nmThe ______________ shall enforce the policies and procedures, and administer a checklist with documentation for maintenance, service, and procedures.Laser Safety Officer (LSO)In the event of a laser induced injury, the supervising physician should be notified and a medical examination should be performed as soon as practical, usually within _____________ after the suspected injury or adverse effect from a laser exposure48 hours________________ and lasers do not mix. ___________ should be stored in a drawer or cabinet away from the laser.AlcoholA ________________ is the first line of protection from exposure to laser generated airborne contaminantsVentilation systemUVA rays (penetrates the epidermis)290-320nmUVB rays (penetrates deeper into subcutaneous layer)320-400nmTweezers used in electrolysis may come in contact with blood, serum or other material and should be ____________ before and after each use to reduce the risk of transmission of infection and diseaseSterilizedSingle-use, pre-sterilized, and disposableNeedleBefore treatment, the skin site should be cleansed with a skin cleansing product followed by an _____________ skin preparationAntisepticWhen 70% alcohol is used to pretreat an area of the skin, the electrologist is ________________ the area, not sterilizing itDisinfectingA complete written ______________ should be taken with every new clientHealth History Assessment (HHA)In laser, the client can not tweeze. They can shave the area, but prepare them for the fact that the amount of hair that they are seeing will _____________ in the beginning.IncreaseThere are a variety of magnifications that can support operators balanced positions, however more magnification is not necessarily better as the higher the magnification the __________ the actual field of viewSmallerThe electrologist logically selects ______________ hairs to gauge the depth to which she will insertLate anagenThe distance from the surface of the epidermis to theBottom of the bulgeWhen the high frequency heating pattern reaches the skin surfaceBlanching or whiteningThe more moisture there is, the more intense heating pattern, and the more rapidly it will rise up the needleMoisture gradientMost deep, coarse, dark and curly terminal hairs in dark skin will respond very well to theBlend techniqueBlanching and blistering are not acceptable and indicate that a reduction in the ____________ is requiredIntensityAny substance which readily transmits electrical currentConductorThe unit of power, or ampere x voltsWattOne-thousandth of an ampereMilliampereThe use of the positive pole to produce an acid effect on the skin. Closes follicles, decreases redness and reestablishes proper skin pHCataphoresisThe _________________ model bends more gently and gradually and is great for coarse hair with deep, straight folliclesOne pieceCan cause ocular and respiratory problemsPlumeA device which utilizes dry heat for a specified length of time for the purpose of microbial destructionDry heat oven___________________ is on a preventative and as-needed basisService__________________ is determined by the distance between two peaks and is measured in nanometers (nm)WavelengthAt about ___________ water becomes an additional chromophore which increases the amount of light which converts to heat900nmDependent on wavelength and spot sizeDepth of PenetrationThe lower on the spectrum of light the higher the attraction to melanin and oxyhemoglobin. The higher on the spectrum the more attraction to water and less attraction to melanin and oxyhemoglobinChromophoreThe amount of time energy is directed to a targetPulse widthPulse width is measured inmilliseconds (ms) or nanoseconds (ns)Forced cold air at -34 degrees CAir coolingThe physical process in which light energy is converted by the target tissue into either heat, an acoustic response, a chemical reaction, or cellular stimulationAbsorptionWhat are the three parameters to adjust according to target during laser hair removal?Wavelength, Pulse width, FluenceGoogles with ____________ are preferred because they provide protection against back reflection and side entrance of stray laser beamsSide shieldsNo extension cords can be used; no solutions can be placed near or onLasersIf clients are on blood thinners there is an increased risk of purpura; do not treat without?Permission from MDLaser eyewear must be labeled stating the wavelength in nanometers (nm) andOptical density
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