1) Legally operative documents (LOD)
Where the writing has independent legal significance THE WRITING ITSELF CREATES OR DESTROYS A LEGAL RELATIONSHIP
EXAMPLES: CONTRACT, WILL, DEED, MORTGAGE, LEASE, DRIVER'S LICENSE, MOVIE IN AN OBSENTITY ACTION, PHOTO IN PORN ACTION, WRITTEN LIABEL, DIVORCE DECREE
2) Where the testimony is reliant on the writing, not on personal knowledge.
ex: Doctor testifies, "The x-ray of plaintiff's lungs shows distension characteristic of emphysema." No personal knowledge independent of X-ray, BER applies, X-ray must be provided.