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State & Local Gov't Review (Quizlets combined)
Terms in this set (65)
unit of local government that is incorporated by the state and that has a large degree of self-gov't
largest type of municipality
division of state government formed to carry out state laws, collect taxes, and supervise elections in a single area
elected official who usually commands several deputies and an office staff
basic plan for a local gov't unit that defines its powers, responsibilities, and organizations
rules/regulations that govern a community
unit of a local gov't, usually larger than a village and smaller than a city
meeting of all citizens to discuss town issues
during colonial times NY, NJ, PA used this form of gov't; smaller than NE towns, performed the same gov't functions such as building schools and roads
unit of gov't formed to meet many different needs including fire protection, libraries, parks and recreation centers, public transportation, and sewage disposal
city can write and amend its own municipal charter
legislative body in a mayor-council gov't
city's chief executive officer
form of gov't in which a city is governed by a commission that usually consists of three to nine elected officials, or commissioners
Grants- in- aid
federal funds given to state and local gov'ts for specific projects, such as airport construction or pollution control
funds given to the federal gov't to state and local gov'ts
Define State Governments
unit of gov't that makes and enforces laws for the state
What is the purpose of state constitutions?
explain the powers and responsibilities of state governments; explains who has power, how power is shared, how policy can be made, what rights citizens have, how elections are conducted
What are the three roles state governments play?
responsible for regulating trade within state borders, administer to the needs of smaller local gov'ts, regulate the educational system and provide licenses for professionals
Describe the structure of state legislatures
bicameral legislature in 49 states... made up of the state house of reps and the state senate
What are state legislatures responsible for?
making laws that affect their state; share power over the budget with the governor's office
Can states organize their governments anyway they choose?
What is the role of state legislatures?
to pass laws on the citizens' behalf and represent the citizens of a state equally
Describe the organization of state legislatures.
in 49 states it is bicameral with a house of reps and a senate, Nebraska is unicameral with only a senate
What are the qualifications of state legislatures (slide 21)?
senators must be at least 25 years old, reps must be at least 21 years old; ⅓ of states limit the number of terms
Who is the presiding officer of the state senate and state house of reps?
Lieutenant governor= leads the state senate; Speaker of the House leads the state house of reps (elected by the other reps in the house)
How can citizens participate in lawmaking? (slide 28-29)
develop state laws, attend meeting and hearings of state legislatures, watch the meetings on tv or the internet
Describe the process of initiative.
citizens can start new legislation by writing a proposition which is a petition that describes what they want... they must get a required # of signatures for it to be on the ballot, if enough ppl vote for the bill it will become a law
Describe the method of referendum.
referring potential laws directly to the people
Describe the process of recall.
some states allow voters to remove elected officials from office; process starts with a required # of voters signing a petition, special election is held, majority of voters must favor the recall
Who is the chief executive of the state executive branch?
What are the qualifications most states require of the governor?
must be at least 30 years old, us citizen, lived in state for a certain number of years
Does MA have an official residence for the governor?
What does the governor do as chief executive?
enforces laws, shares role with other executives
Describe the responsibility of creating the budget.
prepares budget for one or two years; submits budget to legislatures; budget sets priorities and offers solutions to problems
What are four of the executive departments that most states have?
agriculture, justice, labor, public safety, transportation, public works
when jobs are given to people through recommendations from political party leaders; jobs often go to people who provided help during elections and campaigns
What roles does the governor have as chief legislator?
appears before the legislature to make suggestions about laws that should be passed; governor may submit legislation that he or she wants passed
Describe the role of political party leader
head of his or her political party... can help during campaigns for re-election for members of party
What are other powers and duties of governors?
heads of the state police and militia report to the governor; governor may call out the national guard to help keep order; judicial powers= pardoning certain prisoners
As a citizen
what two levels of law and sets of judicial systems are you subject to?, Federal courts and laws & State courts and laws
Describe Criminal Cases.
cases involving individuals who broke the penal code, which is a set of criminal laws
What are the 3 types of courts found in most states?
general trial courts, appeals courts, state supreme courts
What kind of cases to trial courts hear?
minor cases involving minor criminal cases and civil cases
What are the two ways state supreme court judges can be elected or appointed?
citizens elect them or governor appoints them
powers given to the federal gov't; ex= conducting foreign policy, printing money, maintaining a post office, defending the country
powers explained in the 10th Amendment which says any power not delegated to the federal gov't belongs to the people and the states
powers shared by both state and federal governments
Full Faith and Credit Clause
states must accept the decision of courts in other states; accepting marriage certificates, birth certificates, etc
returning fugitives (ppl who have committed crimes and then fled to another state)
legislatures that are divided into two houses
one-house legislature (Nebraska)
term used to describe citizens who you (a legislator or governor) represents
process of citizens starting a new legislation
method of referring potential laws directly to the people for approval
removing elected officials from office
chief executive in each state; works for the people of his or her state; lead state gov'ts, set priorities, make gov't appointments, implement laws
process by which people are given jobs b/c they are recommended by political party leaders
becomes head of the state executive branch if the governor dies, resigns or is removed from office; serves as the presiding officer of the state senate
set of state criminal laws
State trial courts
"Law of the land" for the states; describes how the state's government must operate; amended and changed more frequently than the U.S. Const.
The basic support structures that serve a geographic area (transportation, communication, power systems)
Part of the state executive branch that carry out the laws passed by the state's legislature (education, transportation, health)
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