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Unit 3 Exam
Terms in this set (90)
Which two categories of nutrients are found in eggs?
Lipids and proteins
Which vitamin is made by the body?
Which vitamin is important for the health of the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye?
When FAD is _______ during the Krebs cycle it gains 2 hydrogens to become FADH2.
The linkage reaction produces _____ acetyl coA, ____ CO2, and ____ NADH.
Which substrate directly enters the linkage reaction?
Generating glycogen from glucose is called:
Ammonia is converted to urea in the ____ after the anime group of amino acid is removed during ______.
Which of the following lipoproteins has the lowest density?
Which of the following will occur if core body temperature rises?
Blood vessels of the skin dilate
Which of the following lists the blood vessels involved in venous draining of the kidneys in the correct order?
Arcuate vein- Interlobar vein- Renal vein
Which of the following substances does NOT pass through the filtration membrane?
When blood pressure increase, there is also a(n) ____- blood flow to the afferent arteriole.
Which substance converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I?
Which of the following substances causes the adrenal glands to secrete aldosterone?
When kidneys retain more sodium, this also causes an increased retention of ____ which will_____ blood volume.
The process of ______ involves the body moving useful substances from the renal tubules into the peritubular capillaries.
Which of the following substances is involved in the body's response to high blood pressure?
During the tubulo-glomerular feedback mechanism, an increase in the NaCI concentration in the filtrate will lead the ______ cells to secrete ______ chemicals to the afferent arteriole.
macula densa; vasoconstrictor
Osmolarity of the filtrate will ____ as it goes up the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
Most of the ECF of the body is found in the:
Most water loss from the body occurs through:
What is the most significant solute in determining total body water and distribution of water among fluid compartments?
An increase in pH of blood would cause the respiratory system to do which of the following to bring back into normal range:
The respiration rate would decrease
What is the most abundant positive ion in the ECF?
Which of the following occurs when caffeine or alcohol inhibits the release of ADH?
High volume and diluted urine output
Carbonic acid is an example of a:
Which type of buffer is the fastest to restore a normal pH?
What would a chemical buffer do if the pH of the blood began to decrease beyond homeostatic levels?
When a person becomes severely ______, their blood becomes ______ and fluid from their blood enters the interstitial space and then enters cells in order to attempt to restore normal osmolality of the blood.
What is a good source of unsaturated fats?
`The major metabolic function for most vitamins is working as ________.
In general metabolic terms, food digestion is a form of _______, while building new protein molecules is a form of _______.
What is the synthesis of glucose from amino acids called?
What molecule is the common branch point for either the anaerobic or aerobic pathway?
Approximately how many ATP molecules are generated by cellular respiration of one glucose molecule?
What process produces most of the. NADH that contributes to ATP synthesis in the cell?
The removal of the anime group from an amino acid
Which of the following molecules is produced in the process of detoxifying ammonia?
Which of the following lipoprotein categories contains the least total lipid and yet helps remove excess cholesterol from the body?
High-density lipoproteins; HDLs
Which of the following is called "bad cholesterol?"
Low-density lipoproteins; LDLs
Which of the following does NOT occur when a person is fasting?
The basal metabolic rate can most effectively be defined as the ______.
amount of energy needed to maintain life
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the ______.
The _______ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
The blood filtering structure of the kidney is called the ______.
Which of the following form the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate in the _______.
Proximal convoluted tubule; PCT
How would giving a patient intravenous albumin affect filtration?
Due to higher colloid osmotic pressure, the net filtration pressure would be lower
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is _________.
Glomerular blood hydrostatic pressure
Increased blood volume leads to:
Increased blood pressure; vice versa
What type of response by the afferent arterioles would you expect if blood pressure increased?
The afferent arterioles would constrict
The two main fluid compartments within the body are ______ and _______.
intracellular fluid; extracellular fluid
Water output is mostly controlled by varying ______.
Two types of fluid deficiency
Volume depletion (hypovolemia) and dehydration
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
The most abundant cation of the ECF is ______ and the most abundant anion in the ECF is _______.
Na+ ; CI-
An increase in the ECF solute content causes:
water to move out of the cell
Which of the following statements best summarizes the relationship between the sodium content of fluids and water movements?
Water follows salt
The main intracellular electrolyte is _______.
If the osmolarity of the ECF decreased to a level lower than the ICF, water would?
move into the cells
Which solute plays the biggest role in water reabsorption?
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called _______.
Aldosterone mainly targets which part of the nephron?
Distal convoluted tubule
ANP promotes which of the following?
Which of the following characterizes a weak base?
It binds a little H+ and has a weak effect on pH
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
Hyperventilation leads to _______.
If the blood pH lowers, what change would you expect from the respiratory system?
The respiration rate would increase
Blood pH lowers means a person is in:
Maximum capacity of the bladder is approximately:
Normal volume of urine is:
The nephron consists of:
Renal corpuscle and renal tubule
Renal ______ extends into the medulla of the kidney
Renal _____ is found in the cortex of the kidney
What is ADH?
Hormone made by the hypothalamus in the brain and stored in the posterior pituitary gland
regulates and balances the amount o water in your blood
What is ANPs main function?
Lower blood pressure and to control electrolyte homeostasis
when is ANP secreted?
When blood sodium levels and pressure are increased
Urinary system is also known as:
Renal system/urinary tract
What is the main purpose of the urinary system?
eliminate waste from body, regulate volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood
The most important structures in the urinary tract are:
the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra
How do the kidneys make urine?
The nephrons of the kidneys process blood an create urine through a process of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion
The four basic processes in the formation of urine are:
Filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion
If a toddler ate a bunch of tums what should they be worried about?
the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
glucose to glycogen
What contains pyruate?
red wine, cheese, apples
Where is aldosterone secreted by?
What raises and decreases blood pressure?
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