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Describing a Change in State (I started doing something and am now doing something else)

(dictionary form or neg. form +) you ni naru

Passive form (direct object becomes the subject)

(Root + a-column +) reru

ba conditionals (if you do this, this will happen)

(root + e-column +) ba

Wanting to have something done

(who wants to have the something done wa) (who is the doer ni) te hoshi

Passive honorific form (No passive intention, just a lesser honorific form)

(Root + a-column +) reru

Passive Caustive form (to be made to do something by someone)

(CLASS 1= root + a column +) serareru
(CLASS 2= root +) saserareru
(IRREGULAR) (same as Class 2)

Expressing Concession (no matter what I do something)

demo, -temo

Expressing a speaker's emotional involvement


To offer a suggestion

you ni susumeru

to say something

you ni iu

to ask something

you ni tanomu

a purpose or manner in which something is to be done

(result of clause + plan, non past form of a verb +) you ni (clause)

It's all right not to...

(VERB= Negative stem +) nakuteii
(na-adjective=dictionary form+ de)

Coming to a conclusion

(Plain form +) wakedesu

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