Unit 1: Land Use and Management

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Lesson 1
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What impacts do mountaintop removal have on the surrounding ecosystem?- Mountaintop removal increases salt in streams, which degrades stream water quality and leaches into soil, altering mineral levels. - Leftover debris and rocks are deposited in valleys, interfering with runoff and affecting surrounding areas.What effects does fracking have on the surrounding area?- earthquakes - groundwater contaminationHow does monoculture farming compare to polyculture farming in terms of ecosystem effects?- Polyculture crops enhance biodiversity by providing better soil conditions than monoculture crops. - Polyculture crops offer improved nutrient cycling over monoculture crops.Checkpoint 1_[blank]_ and _[blank]_ are two methods of land use that are more common than cropland. Which best completes the sentence?Pastures, forestsWhich methods of land use in the US are less common than special uses?- urban - wetlandsWhat are two major ways in which land is used in the United States?forests and grasslands (including pasture and range)Which methods of land management aim to prevent negative effects to the land?.25 of 1 - clear-cutting forests - rotation of grazing animals - clear-cutting forests - regulating wildlifeMatch each correct description with a sustainable farming method.Grasses, legumes, and forbs are planted to improve soil and reduce erosion. = cover crops Different crops are grown on the same area of land year after year in a well thought out and recurring order. = crop rotation Leave the soil as is and aim to break up the soil as little as possible. = no tillWhich methods of land management air to prevent negative effects to the land?.25 of 1 - clear-cutting forests - rotation of grazing animals - clear-cutting forests - regulating wildlifeMatch each correct description with the mining method.This less expensive method drills and blasts hard rock, but some softer materials can be mined without the use of blasting. = surface This expensive method drills and blasts the rock and then moves it by truck, elevator, or belt conveyor. = subsurface The mined materials are washed with water to concentrate the heavier minerals. = placerUsing chemical fertilizers in farming _[blank]_ crop yields and _[blank]_ short-term soil fertility.increases, improvesCompare and match each type of land use with how each affects land fertility.Minerals can seep into the water table, raising the risk of groundwater contamination. = strip mining Areas become bare, causing soil erosion. = continuous grazing Water quality worsens due to the concentrated release of feces. = feedlots Invasive plant species are destroyed, and the prevalence of wildfires is decreased. = controlled burnsHow do till farming and no-till farming compare in terms of ecosystem impacts?- Tilling damages soil structure, leading to soil erosion. - No-till farming creates a protective layer of soil that absorbs rain and reduces evaporation, whereas conventional farming does not.How do feedlots compare to pasture-raised cattle in terms of ecosystem effects?- Pasture-raised cattle decrease soil erosion compared to feedlots. - Pasture-raised cattle maintain water quality compared to feedlots.Lesson 3: Sustainable AgricultureWorkbook 3.1How does the USDA banning biodegradable plastic containing petroleum serve as an example of a political consequence related to organic farming?This ends up making more single-use plastic since organic farmers are using the plastic to control pests and weeds.What is a social consequence of organic farming?Organic produce is not equally affordable to all people.Organic farming often uses _[blank]_ natural pesticides compared to conventional farming, which uses synthetic pesticides; this in turn can _[blank]_ the environment.more applications of, harmIn what way is converting a natural area into an organic farm just as bad as converting it to a conventional farm?Either way, there is a loss of biodiversity with both conversions.Lesson 4Workbook 4.1Urban areas result in_[blank]_ farmland.lessWhat can be predicted about the temperature in an urban location, compared to a nearby rural area?On average the temperature can be 5 degrees Fahrenheit higher in the urban area.How does the lack of trees and vegetation in urban areas affect climate change?- Plants serve as carbon sinks. Without them, carbon dioxide is getting released back into the atmosphere. - Trees provide evaporative cooling.How do industrial processes and transportation in cities worsen climate change?- Air pollution from factories alters the heating and cooling of the atmosphere. - Car, train, and bus exhaust release gases that lead to climate change.Checkpoint 2How can the process of obtaining the USDA's organic certification impact organic farmers?The process is expensive and can act as a financial barrier to small farms trying to certify as organic.How do social views about conventional and organic food compare?Many people feel that organic food is more nutritious than conventionally farmed food.In what ways can organic agriculture work against sustainability?- Organic farmers often lay sheets of plastic on top of soil to control pests and weeds. This causes excess waste from the plastic. - Many organic farmers till the soil in place of using herbicides. This results in a loss of topsoil.How does organic farming compare to conventional farming in terms of land use?Organic farms use more acreage to get the same yield as conventional farms, which can take away land that could have been for natural ecosystems.What is an impact that urbanization has on human health?Urbanization increases the risk of respiratory disease due to higher concentrations of air pollution.How does urbanization impact education?There are more opportunities for education.The temperature in a rural area is 27℃ (80℉). What would the temperature in the nearest city likely be?hotter than 27℃ (80℉)Which is the most relevant contributor to climate change in urban areas?energy productionHow can urban design in different climate zones affect climate change?- Dark surfaces absorb more heat, increasing temperatures. - Plastic building materials in cold/dry climate zones harden and crack, letting the cold in, worsening heat loss.Which is an example of how humans impact global temperatures?Cement production releases carbon dioxide.Lesson 5Workbook 5.1Which are ways that GMO technology affects the environment negatively?NO - Herbicide-resistant weeds may decrease. - GMOs may kill or negatively affect non-target organisms. - Escaped genes may result in invasive plants. NO - GMO crops increase the need for fertilizers.How can robotic systems help improve agriculture?- They allow for greater control over plant and animal production. - They monitor the use of natural resources, such as water. - They reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides.How did ethical beliefs play a part in the implementation of golden rice?People supported golden rice because it helped solve food and nutrition problems.Which are possible negative consequences from the use of GMOs?- Genes from GMOs may escape. - Non-target organisms may be harmed by certain GMOs.Unit 1 SessionCode: week1Planting grasses to cover soil left bare after a fire reduces erosion.trueUrban areas are generally warmer than the surrounding natural environments.trueLand use for crops has increased since 1949.falseConcentrating animals in feed lots reduce soil erosion.falseExam 1 ReviewMountaintop removal damages nearby waterways by leaching salt and depositing rocks and other debris.trueMore land is managed as national parks than as forest.falseLeaving grazing animals in the same place to graze is better land management than rotating them to different parts of the pasture.falseLand use for crops and rangeland has increased since 1949.falsePlanting grasses to cover soil left bare after a fire reduces erosion.trueMany people driving alone in fossil fuel burning vehicles contributes to climate change because it releases carbon dioxide.trueThe use of cement in urban areas contributes to climate change because the production of cement releases carbon dioxidetrueLight gray concrete leads to warmer temperatures than black asphalt because it absorbs more thermal energy.falseAir pollution from industry affects climate by modifying air temperature but not weather patterns.falseIncreasing the percentage of people using city transportation over personal vehicles improves climate by decreasing exhaust emissions which blocks solar radiation.trueDigging up and turning soil between crop plantings is more sustainable than not digging up and turning soil.falseConcentrating animals in feedlots reduces soil erosion.falseIt is easy and inexpensive for small farms to obtain organic certification.falsePlanting different species of crops in agricultural fields improves water and nutrient conditions in soil better than planting only one species.trueThe generally higher cost of organic produce is one of the reasons people in low socioeconomic neighborhoods have less access to organic produce.trueUrban environments are generally warmer than the surrounding natural environments.trueAir pollution in urban areas increases health problems, such as respiratory disease.trueUrban areas tend to be cooler than the surrounding rural environments because there are more trees.falseHomes in downtown urban areas tend to experience more freezing night temperatures than the surrounding rural areas.falseAn urban area has been growing for the last 70 years, which means the amount of farmland in this urban area has most likely also increased.falseGMO crops increase the need for water, fertilizer, and pesticide use in agriculture.falseRobotics in agriculture can improve crop yield while reducing fertilizer and water use.trueRobotics improves agriculture by eliminating the need for pesticides.falsePollen from GMO plants may fertilize nearby non-GMO plants, spreading genes to unintended plants.trueBeneficial insects, such as pollinators or pest-eaters, are positively impacted by the presence of insect-resistant GMO crops.falseExam 11. Select the sentences that correctly summarize how land is used in the United States..5 out of 1 Pastures and forests make up a larger percentage of land use than cropland, miscellaneous, urban, and special use.2. Select the sentences that correctly summarize how land is used in the United States.33 out of 1 Some methods of land use, such as forests, are better for the environment than others, such as urban uses.3. Match each method of land use with the example of how it is managed.Rotate grazing animals to reduce the growth of undesirable plants. = pastures Flatten and shape waste dumps to further stabilize them. = mines Enforce regulations such as setting bag limits and legal methods for taking wildlife. = wildlife areas Log selectively to remove a few trees and leave others intact. = forests4. What are ways in which cropland is sustainably managed?- Practice no-till farming so that soil is not disturbed through tilling. - Rotate crops to reduce plant diseases and increase soil nutrients. - Plant cover crops to prevent soil erosion and improve water quality.5. Select the sentences that correctly summarize how certain methods of land management aim to prevent negative effects on the land..5 out of 1 Rotating grazing animals gives an area time to recover and not be drained of its nutrients6. How does strip mining affect land fertility?- Topsoil is loosened and rain washes it into waterways, causing pollution. - Land is cleared at the mining area, causing plants and wildlife habitats to be destroyed. - Minerals seep into the water table, which increases the risk of chemical contamination of groundwater.7. How does continuous grazing compare to rotational grazing in terms of effects on the land?Continuous grazing can result in overgrazed areas and cause weed growth, while rotational grazing leads to better resistance to periods of dry weather.8. How do feedlots or pasture-raised farm animals affect the area around them?WRONG = The soil can be stripped of nutrients by overgrazing of the animals.9. The Green Revolution brought about certain methods of farming that required large amounts of pesticide, which_[blank]_.caused contamination to waterways10. How can controlled burns affect land fertility?- They can destroy invasive plant species. - They can prevent destructive wildfires. - They can rid the forest of dead natural debris.11. What is a political or social consequence of organic farming compared to conventional farming?The certification process for organic farms does not include labor standards; since these farms need more labor workers may be at risk of being overworked and undervalued.12. How can government funding and policies affect conventional farming and sustainable farming?Policymakers may not have enough funds to support conventional farming while implementing incentives for sustainable farming; this can cause a rift among policymakers choosing which side to fund.13. How can organic farming impact our current society?- Smaller farms may not be able to participate in organic certification due to the high cost of the organic certification process. - Organic foods sell for a higher price, and affordability may be an issue for some people.14. How does the volume of crops produced by organic farming potentially lead to social consequences?Fewer crops are produced which decreases supply, making organic foods costly and less accessible.15. How is the environment affected when natural pesticides are used in organic farming?Since natural pesticides are usually not as effective as synthetic ones, farmers have to apply them more often. This means the compounds in the natural pesticides that may end up on organic foods could be above the safe limits set by farming standards.16. Why might people in urban areas face greater health risks than those in rural areas?- There are usually fewer green spaces to filter pollutants. - There are industrial processes producing pollutants in a smaller area.17. How would the temperature of a downtown urban area compare to the temperature of a rural area?The temperature is likely to be much hotter in the downtown area than in the rural area.18. What are examples of urbanization affecting global climate change?Fossil fuel burning from urban factories releases carbon into the atmosphere, which traps heat.19. How can urban conditions worsen global climate change?- Clearing land to build cities causes a loss of plants, which decreases the amount of carbon dioxide removed from the air. - Greenhouse gases from trains and buses retain heat in the atmosphere.20. How does urbanization contribute to climate change?- Air pollution is worse in cities where industrial factories are close to each other. The air pollution alters the heating and cooling of the atmosphere. - Intense heat waves cause urban dwellers to use more energy to cool their homes. This increased use of energy affects climate change.21. What are the effects of GMOs on the environment? Include both negative and positive effects.Positive effects of GMOs on the environment include a reduction in the amount of pesticides needed, and reducing the amount of plowing needed. They also provide an increase of nutrients in the food. Negative effects of GMOs on the environment include pollen landing on other plants or weeds and making them resistant to herbicides. GMOs also may cause harm to the human genome.22. How do ethical beliefs influence the use of GMOs?People may think GMOs are ethical since they can be used to feed more people using fewer resources.23. Which is an example of how ethical beliefs influence food science?People may insist upon free-range farming since it is more humane for the animals.