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Clinical Laboratory Sciences
Protein Assays & Hepatobiliary Tests
Animal Medicine II Lab
Terms in this set (46)
Functions of plasma proteins:
1.) Maintains osmotic pressure- acts as a colloid
2.) Building blocks for nutrients
3.) Acid-Base balance
Individual proteins serve as:
1.) A transport (bind)
3.) Clotting elements
Represents 35-40% of all the total protein
Albumin accounts for 75% of
colloidal osmotic pressure of plasma
What does albumin transport?
Globulins are separated by
Acute-phase proteins of inflammation are
alpha and beta globulins eg; fibrinogen
Gamma globulins are
Liver disease (albumin is made in the liver)
Renal protein loss
Severe immunodeficiency disease
chronic inflammatory diseases
immune mediated diseases such as cirrhosis of the liver subacute bacterial infections
auto immune diseases
Calculation of serum globulin levels
Total protein- Albumin= Globulin
Calculation of the A:G ratio
Albumin divided by globulin
The A:G Ratio will remain within the reference interval if both fractions are altered uniformly. Loss of both proteins is seen during
A.____________. Increased concentration is seen during B__________.
A decreased albumin but a normal globulin level in renal disease will ____________ the A:G Ratio.
A normal albumin but an increase in Globulin because of an increase in antibody production will ______ the A:G Ratio.
An increase in antibody production will do what to albumin and globulin?
Normal albumin, increased globulin
Lack of production of antibodies such as immunodeficiency will do what to the A:G ratio?
The body over-produces Albumin will do what to the A:G Ratio?
What protein changes do you see with Feline Infectious Peritonitis?
What protein changes do you see with Feline Immunodeficiency virus?
This enzyme is present in many tissues; found primarily in liver and bone
The most liver-specific enzyme in the cat & dog
High levels in both skeletal muscle and RBCs
When levels are 10-15 times the normal it often indicates a biliary obstructive disease
Proportional to the number of injured hepatocytes
Often associated with cholestasis
An increase is a common, nonspecific finding in dogs that are associated with drug induction
The magnitude of elevation is typically less than ALT when there's hepatocellular injury.
Product of RBC Destruction
Reversibly bound to albumin in plasma
Excreted out of the body in the feces
What are the three types of hyperbilirubinemia?
An excessive increase in bilirubin production is an example of _________________hyperbilirubinemia.
Intravascular hemolysis is an example of __________________hyperbilirubinemia.
A decrease in the liver's ability to perform its normal function of bilirubin metabolism/detoxification is an example of ______________hyperbilirubinemia
A decrease in the excretion of bilirubin out of the body such as a bile duct obstruction is an example of _____________hyperbilirubinemia.
Has lower sensitivity but higher specificity for detecting hepatobiliary disease that ALP activity does
The most marked elevation of _______ result from diseases of the biliary epithelium such as bile duct obstruction and cholecystitis.
Moderate elevations cab be found with primary hepatic neoplasia and corticosteroid induction.
Mild Elevations are found in cases of hepatic necrosis and anticonvulsant administration
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
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