are separated from surrounding tissues by a fibrous capsule and lymphatic tissues are not
lymphatic organs are different from lymphatic tissues in that lymphatic organs
upper lobe of the right lung
the thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the
transports gases to and away from lymph nodes
the lymphatic system does all of the following, except that it
promotes an increased susceptibility to immune system failure
all of the following are true of the secondary or anamnestic response of humoral immunity, except that it
the following are steps in the mediated immune response
antigen is engulfed and presented by a macrophage
undifferentiated t cells with specific receptors recognize the antigen
several cycles of mitosis occur
t cells differentiate into cytotoxic t cells and t memory cells
cytotoxic t cells migrate to focus of infection
cytotoxic t cells release perforin and or lymphotoxin
deactivation of the immune response
the effects of activating the complement system include all of the following, except
is running a fever
a sample of john's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. this would indicate that john
immunoglobulins that attach to mast cells and basophils and are involved in allergic reactions are
in an experimental situation, a virus is injected into a rabbit. the rabbit is allowed to make anibodies against the virus. the anitbodies are then removed from the rabbit plasma and injected into a human to help deal with the same virus. for the person recieving the antibodies this is an example of -------- immunity.
an antibody attached to an antigen
the classic pathway of complement fixation occurs when c1 binds to
natural killer cells
defensive cell ( a type of lymphocyte) that can kill cancer cells and virus-infected body cells before the adaptive immune system is activated. are part of granular lymphocytes. not phagocytic. secrete potent chemicals that enhance the imflammatory response.
type of lymphocyte that orchestrates cellular immunity by direct contact with other immune cells and by releasing chemicals called cytokines; also helps to mediate the humoral response by interacting with b cells.
are the only t cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.
effector t cells that directly kills foreign cells, cancer cells, or virus-infected body cells by inducing apoptosis(cell suicide)
aggregrated lymphoid nodules, are large clusters of lymphoid follicles, structurally similar to the tonsils. located in distal portion of the small intestine. are in ideal position to destroy bacteria before these pathogens can breach the intestinal wall, and to generate many memory lymphocytes for long-term immunity
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)
the collection of small lymphoid tissues located in the wall of the digestive, respiratory and genitourinary system are known as
the most abundant type of white blood cell, become phagocytic on encountering infectious material in the tissues.
secreted by plasma cells in skin, mucosae of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and tonsils. its stem region becomes bound to mast cells and basophils, and when its receptors ends are triggered by an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other chemicals that mediate inflammation, and an allergic reaction.
is the most abundant abundant and diverse antibody in plasma, 75% - 85% of circulating anitbodies. protects aganist bacteria, viruses, and toxins circulating in blood and lymph, readily fixes complement, and is the main antibody of both secondary and late primary responses.
exists in monomer and pentamer forms, monomer- attached to b cell surface, serves as an antigen receptor/ pentamer-circulates in blood plasma and is the first Ig class released by plasma cells during the primary response.
helper t cells function
an effector cd4 T cell central to both humoral and cellular immunity. after binding with a specific antigen presented by an APC, it stimulates production of cytotoxic T cells and plasma cells to help fight invader, activates macrophage, and acts both directly and indirectly by releasing cytokines.
cytotoxic t cell
an effector cd8 cell. activated by antigen presented by an apc, often with helper t cell involvement. its specialty is killing virus-invaded body cells and cancer cells; also involved in rejection of foreign tissue grafts.
are non-antibody producing lymphocytes that constitute the cell-mediated arm of adaptive immunity.
adaptive immune response
1. it is specific. it recognizes and is directed against particular pathogens or foreign substances that initiate the immune response.
2. it is systemic. immunity is not restricted to the initial infection site
3. it has memory. after an initial exposure, it recognizes and mounts even stronger attacks on the previously encountered pathogens.