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AP Psych Ch. 8 practice Test
Terms in this set (69)
After having been struck by a car, a dog now exhibits fear response every time a car approaches. The dog also exhibits a fear response to the approach of a bus, a truck, a bicycle, and even a child's wagon. The dog has undergone a process of
(A) stimulus discrimination
(B) stimulus generalization
(C) spontaneous recovery
(D) backward conditioning
(E) differential reinforcement
Which of the following would be an example of second-order conditioning?
(A) a cat tastes a sour plant that makes it feel nauseated and will not approach that plant again
(B) a horse that is fed sugar cubes by a particular person salivates every time that person walks by
(C) a pigeon that has received food every time a red light is presented exhibits food-seeking behavior when a yellow light is presented
(D) a rabbit that has repeatedly seen a picture of a feared predator paired with a musical tone as well as to a flashed light alone that had been repeatedly paired with the tone
(E) wild rats instinctively avoid canine predators, but domesticated rats show little fear of the domesticated dogs they encounter, and may even join them in exploration or play
The reinforcement schedule that generally provides the most resistance to response extinction is
(A) fixed ratio
(B) fixed interval
(C) variable ratio
(D) variable interval
The importance of enrichment and stimulation of the brain during critical periods in development can be seen in all of the following EXCEPT
(A) an increase in the number of neurons
(B) an increase in the number of connections between neurons
(C) strengthening of already existing connections between neurons
(D) an increase in the size of neurons
(E) higher levels of neurotransmitters
According to Albert Bandura, observational learning can occur even in the absence of
(A) observed consequences of behavior
(B) direct attention to the behavior
(C) retention of the observed behavior over time
(D) ability to reproduce the behavior
(E) motivation to reproduce the behavior at a later time
Every time a tone sounds, a participant has a puff of air blown into her eye. This causes the person to twitch. After a while, the participant twitches as soon as the tone sounds. The twitching that is caused by the air puff is called
(A) the conditioned stimulus
(B) the unconditioned response
(C) the unconditioned stimulus
(D) the conditioned response
Every time Reynaldo does well on his report car, his parents take him out for ice cream. This is an example of
(A) negative reinforcement
(B) negative punishment
(C) positive punishment
(E) positive reinforcement
Tammy is interested in helping her daughter learn manners. Each time her daughter says something that is close to appropriate, she rewards her. Eventually, her daughter should learn good manners. This is an example of
(B) positive reinforcement
If a rat is provided with reinforcement after every 10 bars presses, the schedule is called a
(B) fixed- interval
An example of a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is
(A) a dog getting a treat every time it sits on command
(B) winning money at a slot machine
(C) getting paid each widget you sell
(D) being paid by the week
(E) getting a reward for good behavior once in a while
Lilly is eating a hot dog. Shortly after eating the hot dog, she comes down with the flu. After this, Lilly hates eating hot dogs. Even the thought makes her sick. In this example, the flu is
(B) the unconditioned response
(C) the unconditional stimulus
(D) the conditioned stimulus
(E) the consequence
A boy is given candy each time he studies for an hour. Eventually, his parents observe an increase in studying behavior. This is an example of
(A) positive reinforcement
(B) negative punishment
(C) positive punishment
(E) negative reinforcement
The tendency for stimuli similar to a conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response is referred to as
(A) response bias
According to Skinner, punishment is effective only under very specific conditioned. Which of the following is one of these conditions?
(A) the punishment is mild
(B) the punishment is delayed
(C) the punishment is threatened but not given
(D) the punishment immediately follows the behavior
(E) the punishment occurs on a variable schedule
An example of positive punishment
(A) time out
(C) taking away privileges
(D) removing chores
(E) giving candy
An example of negative reinforcement is
(A) receiving candy
(C) taking away privileges
(D) removing chores
(E) time out
One of the biggest difference between negative reinforcement and punishment is that
(A) only punishment involves the use of aversive stimuli
(B) only negative reinforcement involves the use of aversive stimuli
(C) negative reinforcement increases the likelihood of a desired behavior
(D) negative reinforcement decreases the likelihood of a desired behavior
According to Skinner, the most important environmental aspect that controls human behavior is the
(A) antecedents of the behavior
(B) consequences of the behavior
(C) strength of the behavior
(D) amount of punishment
(E) amount of reinforcement
Witnessing the reinforcement of someone else's behavior has been found to increase the likelihood of that behavior in the witness. This is referred to as
(A) differential reinforcement
(C) vicarious reinforcement
(E) instinctual drift
The person responsible for developing the framework of classical conditioning was
Kohler's studies involving problem solving in chimpanzees are associated with
(A) negative reinforcement
(B) positive reinforcement
(C) insight learning
(D) vicarious reinforcement
(E) cognitive mapping
the psychologist who was responsible for developing the framework of operant condition was
In a classic study, john Watson demonstrated that he could create fear in a child in response to a neutral stimulus (a rat). By pairing the rat with a fear-inducing stimulus (a loud noise), the child eventually became fearful of related stimuli. This is called
(B) spontaneous recovery
(C) unconditioned stimulus
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning differ in that
(A) Classical conditioning deals with voluntary behavior.
(B) Operant conditioning deals with reflexive behavior.
(C) Classical conditioning deals with shaping.
(D) Classical conditioning deals with reflexive behavior.
(E) Operant conditioning does not work in most situations.
Getting paid a piecework at (x dollars per item made) is an example of
(B) Fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
(C) Variable-ratio schedule of reinforcement.
(D) Fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement.
(E) Variable-interval schedule of punishment.
Once Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n)
(A) Unconditioned stimulus
(B) Neutral stimulus
(C) Conditioned stimulus
(D) Unconditioned response
(E) Conditioned response
(A) A pattern of responses that must be made before classical conditioning is completed.
(B) Rewarding behaviors that get closer and closer to the desired goal behavior.
(C) Completing a set of behaviors in succession before a reward is given.
(D) Giving you chocolate pudding to increase the likelihood you will eat more carrots.
(E) Inhibition of new learning by previous learning
John loves to fish. He puts his line in the water and leaves it there until he feels a tug. On what reinforcement schedule is rewarded?
(A) Continuous reinforcement
(B) Fixed ratio
(C) Fixed interval
(D) Variable ratio
(E) Variable interval
Chimpanzees given tokens for performing tricks were able to put the tokens in vending machines to get grapes. The tokens acted as
(A) Primary reinforcers
(B) Classical conditioning
(C) Secondary reinforcers
(D) Negative reinforcers
(E) Unconditioned reinforcers
Which of the following best reflects negative reinforcement?
(A) Teresa is scolded when she runs through the house yelling.
(B) Lina is not allowed to watch television until after she has finished her homework.
(C) Greg changes his math class so he doesn't have to see his old girlfriend.
(D) Aditya is praised for having the best essay in the class.
(E) Alex takes the wrong medicine and gets violently ill afterwards.
Watson and Rayner's classical conditioning of "Little Albert" was helpful in explaining that
(A) Some conditioned stimuli do not generalize
(B) Human emotions such as fear are subject to classical conditioning
(C) Drug dependency is subject to classical as well as operant conditioning
(D) Small children are not easily as conditioned as older children
(E) Fear of rats and rabbits are innate responses previously undiscovered
Jamel got very sick after eating some mushrooms on a pizza at his friend's house. He didn't know that he had a stomach virus at the time, blamed his illness on the mushrooms, and refused to eat them again. Which of the following is the unconditioned stimulus for his taste aversion to mushrooms?
(B) Stomach virus
(E) Aversion to mushrooms
If a previous experience has given your pet the expectancy that nothing it does will prevent an aversive stimulus from occurring, it will likely
(A) Be motivated to seek comfort from you
(B) Experience learned helplessness
(C) Model the behavior of other pets in hopes of avoiding it
(D) Seek out challenges like this in the future to disprove the expectation
(E) Engage in random behaviors until one is successful in removing the stimulus
While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive that the answer to the chemistry problem you'd been working on several hours before. This is an example of
(B) Backward conditioning
(C) Latent learning
(E) The Premack principle
If the trainer conditions the pigeon to peek at a red circle and then only gives him a reward if he pecks at the green circle when both a red and green circle appear, the pigeon is demonstrating
(A) Matching-to-sample generalization
(B) Abstract learning
(C) Intrinsic motivation
Latent learning is best described by which of the following?
(A) Innate responses of an organism preventing new learning and associations
(B) Unconscious meaning that is attributed to new response patterns
(C) Response patterns that become extinguished gradually over time
(D) Delayed responses that occur when new stimuli are paired with familiar ones
(E) Learning that occurs in the absence of rewards
Rats were more likely to learn an aversion to bright lights and noise with water if they were associated with electric shocks rather than with flavors or poisoned food. This illustrates
(D) Observational learning
Which of the following responses is not learned through operant conditioning?
(A) A rat learning to press a bar to get food
(B) Dogs jumping over a hurdle to avoid electric shock
(C) Fish swimming to the top of the tank when a light goes on
(D) Pigeons learning to turn in circles for a reward
(E) Studying hard for good grades on tests
Spontaneous recovery refers to the
(A) Reacquisition of a previously learned behavior
(B) Reappearance of a previously extinguished CR after a rest period
(C) Return of a behavior after punishment has ended
(D) Tendency of a newly acquired responses to be intermittent at first
(E) Organism's tendency to forget previously learned responses, but to relearn them more quickly during a second training period.
In operant conditioning, removal of an aversive stimulus causes the behavior to
(C) Stay the same
(D) Increase, then decrease
(E) Decrease, then increase
In the Little Albert experiment conducted by John B. Watson, the white rat, prior to conditioning, served as what?
(A) Neural stimulus (NS)
(B) Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
(C) Unconditioned response (UCR)
(D) Conditioned stimulus (CS)
(E) Conditioned response (CR)
Jake is training his dog to sit on command. Jake gives his dog a treat every time the dog sits. Which type of reinforcement schedule is Jake displaying?
(A) Partial reinforcement
(B) Continuous reinforcement
(C) Fixed-interval reinforcement
(D) Variable-interval reinforcement
(E) Variable-ratio reinforcement
Lian has an intense phobia of birds. Her psychologist believes that in order to alleviate her phobia, Lian must be placed in a room where she is surrounded by birds. Lian's therapist believes in the effectiveness of what type of phobia-reduction technique?
(A) Systematic desensitation
(D) Second-order conditioning
(E) Stimulus generalization
Students in Mr. Winn's class receive a gold star each time they answer a question correctly. After a student receives ten gold stars, he or she earns a pencil. Mr. Winn is using an operant conditioning technique known as
(C) Aversive conditioning
(D) Token economy
(E) Observational learning
Julie works at a shoe factory and is paid based on the number of shoes she produces in a day. This is an example of which type of schedule of reinforcement?
(E) Sequential reinforcement
Jillian was out past curfew on Saturday. As a result, her parents took away her driving privileges. Jillian no longer stays out past curfew. According to Skinner, which type of punishment did Jillian experience?
(A) Negative punishment (omission)
(B) Positive punishment
(C) Negative reinforcement
(D) Positive reinforcement
(E) Continuous reinforcement
Which of the following is considered a primary reinforcer?
(A) Receiving a $20 for every A on a report card
(B) Receiving praise for a job well done
(C) Inventing a new product
(D) Drinking a glass of water
(E) Discovering a buried treasure
When Zach was eight years old, he ate a piece of shrimp that caused him to become ill. Now Zach is seventeen and becomes nauseous whenever he smells shrimp. Zach has experienced what principle of classical conditioning?
(A) Negative reinforcement
(B) Systematic desensitization
(C) Higher-order conditioning
(D) Latent learning
(E) Conditioned taste aversion
In operant conditioning, a ______ is any stimulus that increases behavior; a ______ is any stimulus that decreases behavior.
(A) Punishment; reinforcement
(B) Punishment; punishment
(C) Reinforcement; reinforcement
(D) Reinforcement; punishment
(E) Higher-order punishment; conditioned stimulus
Every time Rachel's parents leave her with Lisa, the babysitter, Rachel cries. Lisa came to Rachel's third birthday party, which causes Rachel to cry. According to the principles of classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus?
(A) Rachel's parents' leaving
(B) Rachel crying
(C) Rachel seeing Lisa at her house
(D) Lisa leaving Rachel's house
(E) People singing at Rachel's birthday party
A rat receives a food pellet after a certain desired behavior is performed after an elapsed time of 45 seconds. Which of the following correctly identifies which schedule of reinforcement the rat has been placed on?
According to the principles of observational learning, what is the seven-year-old Robert most likely to do after watching a violent television program?
(A) Behave in a way that is opposite the behaviors on the television program
(B) Behave in a way that is different from the behaviors on the television program
(C) When experiencing a situation similar to what he saw on the television program, he will imitate what he saw
(D) See the reaction of others and then decide how to behave
(E) Behave in the same manner he would have if he had not seen the television program
If you want to train your dog to roll over, it is best to treat her on which schedule of reinforcement?
(A) Continuous reinforcement
(B) Contiguous reinforcement
(C) Partial reinforcement
(D) Fixed-interval reinforcement
(E) Variable-interval reinforcement
While giving your friend directions to a local fast-food restaurant, you close your eyes and recall all the landmarks that are on the way. This is an example of
(A) A cognitive map
(B) Latent learning
(C) An overt behavior
(D) Discriminative process
(E) A variable-ratio reinforcement
(A) is a good way to increase a behavior as long as it is not used too frequently.
(B) May create problems in the short term but rarely produces long-term side effects
(C) Is effective because it is a quick, direct way of informing the learner of what behavior is expected
(D) May happen frequently because if the punished person stops misbehaving for a while this reinforces the punisher
(E) Should never be used in the opinion of most psychologists
Which of the following is an application of shaping?
(A) a mother playing cath with her daughter gradually backs up to increase the distance between them
(B) a pigeon peck a disk 25 times for an opportunity to receive a food reinforcement
(C) A rat presses a bar when a green light is on but not when a red light is on
(D) A rat gradually stops pressing a bar when it no longer receives a food reinforcement
(E) A gambler continues to play a slot machine even though he has won nothing on his last 20 plays
Mirror neurons may
(A) allow an organism to replace an unconditioned response with a conditioned response
(B) help produce intrinsic motivation in some children
(C) be the mechanism by which the brain accomplishes as observational learning
(D) produce the neural associations that are the basis of both classical and operant conditioning
(E) explain why modeling prosocial behavior is more effective that modeling negative behavior
Which of the following illustrates generalization?
(A) a rabbit that has been conditioned to blink to a tone also blinks when a similar tone is sounded
(B) a dog salivates to a tone, but not to a buzzer
(C) a light is turned on repeatedly until a rat stops flexing its paw when it's turned on
(D) a pigeon who disk pecking response has been extinguished is placed in a Skinner Box three hours later and begins pecking the disk again.
(E) A child is startled when the door-bell rings
Albert Bandura's Bobo doll experiments demonstrated that
(A) Children are likely to imitate the behavior of adults
(B) The may be a correlation between televised violence and aggressive bahvior, but it is probably not a cause-effect relationship
(C) Children are more likely to copy what adults say than what they do
(D) Allowing children to watch too much television is detrimental to their development
(E) Observational learning can explain the development of fears in children
Robert Rescorla and Allan Wagner conducted experiments that established
(A) That the acquisition of a CR depends on pairing of the CS and US
(B) That different species respond differently to classical conditioning situations
(C) The current belief that classical conditioning is really a form of operant conditioning
(D) That mirror neurons form the biological basis of classical conditioning
(E) The importance of cognitive factors in classical conditioning
Edward Thorndick's law of effect
(A) Establishes the difference between positive and negative reinforcement
(B) Shows that behavior maintained by partial reinforcement is more resistant to extinction that behavior maintained by continuous reinforcement
(C) Demonstrates how shaping can be used to establish operant conditioning
(D) States that reward behavior is more likely to happen again
(E) Relates to the limited effectiveness of punishment
To produce the acquisition of a conditioned response, one should
(A) Repeatedly present an unconditioned response
(B) Administer the conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus
(C) Make sure that the conditioned stimulus comes at least one minute before the unconditioned stimulus
(D) Pair a neural stimulus with an unconditional stimulus several times
(E) Present the conditioned stimulus until is starts to produce an unconditioned response
To determine just what an organism can learn to distinguish, you would use
(B) A variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
(C) A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement
(E) A discriminative stimulus
A student studies long and hard to avoid the bad feelings associated with a low grade on a test. In this case, the studying behavior is being strengthened because of
(A) Positive reinforcement
(B) Negative reinforcement
(C) Delayed reinforcement
(D) Primary reinforcement
(E) Conditioned reinforcement
Taste aversion research has demonstrated that
(A) Taste is the most fundamental of the senses
(B) There a biological dispositions involved in learning
(C) Animals must evaluate situation cognitively before taste aversion develops
(D) Taste aversion is a universal survival mechanism
(E) A US must occur within seconds of a CS for conditioning to occur
Mary checks her phone a couples times an hour for incoming text messages. Her behavior is being maintained on a ______________ reinforcement schedule
(A) Fixed interval
(B) Variable interval
(C) Variable ratio
(D) Fixed ratio
A dog is trained to salivate when it hears a tone. The then tone is sounded repeatedly without the US until the dog stops salivating. Later when the tone sounds again, the dog salivates again. This is a description of
(A) Spontaneous recovery
Latent Learning demonstrates that
(A) Punishment is an ineffective means of controlling behavior
(B) Negative reinforcement should be avoided when possible
(C) Cognition plays an important role in operant conditioning
(D) Conditioned reinforcers are more effective than primary reinforcers
(E) Shaping is usually not necessary for operant conditioning
Classical and operant conditioning were both initially based on the principles of
(A) Cognitive psychology
(B) Biological psychology
(E) Animal thought processes
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