QUESTIONIn 2015, Keenan Company paid dividends totaling $3,600,000 on net income of$10.8 million. Note that 2015 was a normal year and that for the past 10 years, earnings have grown at a constant rate of 10%. However, in 2016, earnings are expected to jump to $14.4 million and the firm expects to have profitable investment opportunities of$8.4 million. It is predicted that Keenan will not be able to maintain the 2016 level of earnings growth because the high 2016 earnings level is attributable to an exceptionally profitable new product line introduced that year. After 2016, the company will return to its previous 10% growth rate. Keenan’s target capital structure is 40% debt and 60% equity. a. Calculate Keenan’s total dividends for 2016 assuming that it follows each of the following policies: 1. Its 2016 dividend payment is set to force dividends to grow at the long-run growth rate in earnings. 2. It continues the 2015 dividend payout ratio. 3. It uses a pure residual dividend policy (40% of the $8.4 million investment is financed with debt and 60% with common equity). 4. It employs a regular-dividend-plus-extras policy, with the regular dividend being based on the long-run growth rate and the extra dividend being set according to the residual dividend policy. b. Which of the preceding policies would you recommend? Restrict your choices to the ones listed but justify your answer. c. Assume that investors expect Keenan to pay total dividends of$9,000,000 in 2016 and to have the dividend grow at 10% after 2016. The stock’s total market value is $180 million. What is the company’s cost of equity? d. What is Keenan’s long-run average return on equity? [Hint: g=Retention rate [math]\times[/math] ROE=(1.0-Payout rate)(ROE)] e. Does a 2016 dividend of$9,000,000 seem reasonable in view of your answers to parts c and d? If not, should the dividend be higher or lower? Explain your answer. QUESTIONYou want to buy a house that costs $140,000. You have$14,000 for a down payment, but your credit is such that mortgage companies will not lend you the required $126,000. However, the realtor persuades the seller to take a$126,000 mortgage (called a seller take-back mortgage) at a rate of 5%, provided the loan is paid off in full in 3 years. You expect to inherit $140,000 in 3 years; but right now all you have is$14,000, and you can afford to make payments of no more than $22,000 per year given your salary. (The loan would call for monthly payments, but assume end-of-year annual payments to simplify things.) a. If the loan was amortized over 3 years, how large would each annual payment be? Could you afford those payments? b. If the loan was amortized over 30 years, what would each payment be? Could you afford those payments? c. To satisfy the seller, the 30-year mortgage loan would be written as a balloon note, which means that at the end of the third year, you would have to make the regular payment plus the remaining balance on the loan. What would the loan balance be at the end of Year 3, and what would the balloon payment be? QUESTIONRobert Black and Carol Alvarez are vice presidents of Western Money Management and codirectors of the company’s pension fund management division. A major new client, the California League of Cities, has requested that Western present an investment seminar to the mayors of the represented cities. Black and Alvarez, who will make the presentation, have asked you to help them by answering the following questions. a. What are a bond’s key features? b. What are call provisions and sinking fund provisions? Do these provisions make bonds more or less risky? c. How is the value of any asset whose value is based on expected future cash flows determined? d. How is a bond’s value determined? What is the value of a 10-year, $1,000 par value bond with a 10% annual coupon if its required return is 10%? e. 1. What is the value of a 13% coupon bond that is otherwise identical to the bond described in part d? Would we now have a discount or a premium bond? 2. What is the value of a 7% coupon bond with these characteristics? Would we now have a discount or premium bond? 3. What would happen to the values of the 7%, 10%, and 13% coupon bonds over time if the required return remained at 10%? (Hint: With a financial calculator, enter PMT, I/YR, FV, and N; then change (override) N to see what happens to the PV as it approaches maturity.) f. 1. What is the yield to maturity on a 10-year, 9% annual coupon,$1,000 par value bond that sells for $887.00? That sells for$1,134.20? What does the fact that it sells at a discount or at a premium tell you about the relationship between rd and the coupon rate? 2. What are the total return, the current yield, and the capital gains yield for the discount bond Assume that it is held to maturity, and the company does not default on it. g. What is price risk? Which has more price risk, an annual payment 1-year bond or a 10-year bond? Why? h. What is reinvestment risk? Which has more reinvestment risk, a 1-year bond or a 10-year bond? i. How does the equation for valuing a bond change if semiannual payments are made? Find the value of 10-year, semiannual payment, 10% coupon bond if nominal $\mathrm{r}_{\mathrm{d}}=13 \%$. j. Suppose for $1,000 you could buy a 10%, 10-year, annual payment bond or a 10%, 10-year, semiannual payment bond. They are equally risky. Which would you prefer? If$1,000 is the proper price for the semiannual bond, what is the equilibrium price for the annual payment bond? k. Suppose a 10-year, 10% semiannual coupon bond with a par value of $1,000 is currently selling for$1,135.90, producing a nominal yield to maturity of 8%. However, it can be called after 4 years for $1,050. 1. What is the bond’s nominal yield to call (YTC)? 2. If you bought this bond, would you be more likely to earn the YTM or the YTC? Why? l. Does the yield to maturity represent the promised or expected return on the bond? Explain. m. These bonds were rated AA– by S&P. Would you consider them investment-grade or junk bonds? n. What factors determine a company’s bond rating? o. If this firm were to default on the bonds, would the company be immediately liquidated? Would the bondholders be assured of receiving all of their promised payments? Explain.