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a group of people who live in a complex, organized society within a culture




a flat area of land


an area of high, flat land


a system for watering crops


a city with its own form of government, villages, and traditions


an area of land with common physical features


a craftsperson

two important rivers

Tigris and Euphrates rivers

In what body of water do the two important rivers flow into?

Persian Gulf

In ancient times what civilization developed between the tigris and euphrates rivers?


Parts of what (8) countries make up the region once known as the Fertile Crescent?

Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Syria, and Saudi Arabia

How did ancient farmers in this land make their land productive?

Building an irrigation system to help control their water supply

What was the effect of constant warfare among the city-states of Sumer?

Constant warfare among city-states weakened the empire. City-states could no longer fight off attacks from neighbors.

Why did nomadic warriors want to conquer the city-states of Sumer?

Nomadic warriors wanted to conquer the city-states of Sumer to get the riches of the Empire.

What was the final cause of the fall of the Sumerian Empire?

The final cause of the fall of the Sumerian Empire was nomadic warriors from the deserts and hills surrounding Sumer, scaled the walls of Ur and destroyed the city-state.

How did Sumerian civilization affect other empires that developed in Mesopotamia?

Sumerian civilization affected other empires that developed in Mesopotamia because their ideas lived on and were adopted by leaders of the other civilizations.

Why do historians study cause-effect connections?

Historians study cause-effect relationships to better understand how and WHY events took place.

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