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Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (43)
What is the life-stages hypothesis?
as people age, their openness to persuasion changes. its in a U where children and elderly people are more open to persuasion and adults are less open to persuasion
what are individual difference variables?
how might they influence persuasion?
background characteristics (age, gender, education, culture, race)
What are individualism and collectivism, intelligence and cognitive complexity, self-esteem, self-monitoring, ego involvement? How do each of these things influence persuasion?
"I" perspective: the individual is most important
stresses independence, uniqueness is valued, uses DIRECT persuasive strategies
"we" perspective: group needs supersede individuals, self is defined in relation to others, uses INDIRECT persuasive strategies
Intelligence and cognitive complexity
-how many constructs a person can use to describe/understand an idea/belief
Construct: perceptual category that we use to evaluate things (less intelligent people are more easily persuaded that intelligent people)
- people with MODERATE levels are more likely to be persuaded
- people with HIGH levels may notice the message but not be persuaded by it
- people with LOW levels may assume the message is not geared toward them & not pay attention to it
how much people observe and regulate their behaviors social contexts
high self monitors are more responsive to
-acceptance, social rewards
-more likely to adjust appearances & behaviors & conform to social norms
- more responsive to image-based advertising
low self monitors are:
-less responsive to social cues
- can come across unaware/insensitive
-less likely to do something because it looks good to others
-more attentive to message content
-rely more on their own judgement
the strength of someone's attitude influences how they process messages related to that attitude
What is social judgement theory? What are the latitudes of acceptance, noncommitment, and rejection? How do they work during persuasive attempts?
-people dont just consider a persuasive message on its merits alone
-they consider how it fits with their own perceptions
-their perceptions serve as a filter for new information
latitude of acceptance
statements and ideas with which the listener agrees
latitude of noncommitment
statements and ideas with which the listener neither agrees nor disagrees
latitude of rejection
statements and ideas with which the listener judges as objectionable or unacceptable
a person's latitude of acceptance and rejection is heavily influences by their ego involvement with an issue
high personal relevance = high degree of ego involvement
What is moral foundations theory? What are the moral foundations, and how are they related to persuasion?
"instead of thinking about just liberal or conservative ideologies, we can think about what might inform those ideologies
5 moral foundations
empathy, safe, benefit, compassion
equal, justice, rights, tolerant
together, family, patriot, group
obey, respect, duty, leader
clean, innocent, chaste, moderate
Influence in Groups
What is conformity?
Conformity- adhering to or observing standards, rules, or laws; behaviors in accordance with socially accepted conventions or standards
What influences conformity?
group size, reference groups, number of dissenters, difficulty joining the group, communicator characteristics
What is identification, and how does it influence conformity?
identification - includes experiencing shared meanings/goals
(for persuasion to occur, one party must "identify" with another)
What is social cognitive theory? How might it facilitate persuasion?
describes the influence of individual experiences, the actions of others, and environmental factors on individual health behavior
What is social identity theory? How is it related to conformity?
the portion of an individual's self-concept derived from perceived membership in a social group
What is social proof? How is it associated with persuasive attempts?
social proof- the concept that people will follow the actions of the masses
- the idea is that since so many other people behave in a certain way, it must be the correct behavior.
What is social loafing? What are the types of social loafing and what explains social loafing?
social loafing - the concept that people are prone to exert less effort when working collectively as part of a group compared to performing alone
How do denotative and connotative meanings differ?
denotative meaning - explicit dictionary definition
connotative meaning - subjective feelings, emotions attached to a word
What are ultimate terms?
words that share a connotative meaning with a large group of people (e.g. culture/personality)
- terms embody core values of that group
- highly revered, widely accepted and carry special power in that group (can be persuasive)
What are aphorisms? Metaphors? Euphemisms? Be able to identify them.
Aphorisms: expression of a general truth of principle (life is short)
Metaphors: equate one thing with another (regan's inaugural address)
Euphemisms: mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt
What is powerless language, and how does it influence persuasion?
What are the persuasion techniques politicians frequently use?
What is nonverbal communication?
What are kinesics, haptics, proxemics, chronemics, artifacts, physical appearance, and paralinguistics? How are they related to persuasion>
What is the direct effects model of immediacy?
What is expectance violation theory? How might it operate in a persuasive context?
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