Louisiana State University Fall 2014 CLST 2102 Test 3
Class: Roman History Professor: Michael Katchmer
Terms in this set (130)
What innovations did Augustus make for security and safety in Rome?
-oversaw all governors
-controlled money of empire and had private funds
-controlled army personally..he paid them
Be ready to
identify maiestas, delatores, curiales, cursus publicus, Res Gestae, urban cohorts,
vigiles, prefect of the city.
Maiestas: republican law; illegal to diminish the majesty of the people..adapted to protect emperor
-Delatores: "informers"/received 4th of wealth of those whom they successfully prosecuted
-Curiales:leadin members of gentes of Rome..collected taxes n food for army
-Cursus publicus: Rapid communications allow Augustus to keep tabs on provinces
-"Things Done" Augustus' epitaph
-Urban cohorts: Created by Augustus to counterbalance the power of the pretorian guard and serve as a police force; consisted of about 1000 to 1500 freeborn citizens
-Vigiles: Firefighter and police of Rome; recruited from freddmen
-Prefect of the city:Commanded cohorts and unbanae; senator of consular rank
What is the ―consumer‖ model of Rome, and what is
Ward's judgment of this model [pp. 279-280]?
Most large ancient cities produced little of economic value andserved mainly their ruling elites. The ruling elite of a region's metropolitan center, it is said, inhibited the development of its hinterlands and subject territories. Surplus wealth was siphoned off in the form of rents, taxes, tribute, and spoils in order to support the metropolis as the physical embodiment of its elite's own greatness. Never studies, however, based on more extensive archaeological research and comparisons with large cities in other premodern societies have shown this model to be inadequate.
What revolution occurred in the glass industry around 40 B.C.?
What were the goals of Augustus' moral legislation, and what according to Ward diminished the effectiveness of these laws?
-To curb immorality and make babies
-The "right of three children" and two julias...excused from munera
How did Augustus
associate himself with the past in his forum, his arch, and the Ara Pacis?
-Forum: Sword of caesar and standards of crassus
-return of standards by parthians;list of consuls and of those who had triumphs
-ara pacis: (alter of peace)Greek antecedents adapted to express roman history and ideals..Romulus n aeneas
What message do these structures convey about his regime and the Republic?
-respected the past??? pietas and public works
What boast did Augustus make about his building program?
-Rome was an attractive city worth of being a world captial
What was the preferred sculptural style in the Augustan period?
Classical[idealized, simplified] but with depth, movement, human touches
Ab Urbe Condita
-History of ancient Rome in latin..begun in 27-25 BC..covers time of Aeneas to augustus to death of drusus
-2 AD; teaching basic gentlemanly male and female relationship skills and techs
Art of Poetry
Horace: Longest and most famous letter from the Epistles ; sets forth the principles for writing poetry, especially tragedy
-First of three major works Latin;..was taking from the Greek Bucolica
-second major work..published 29...draws on many prior greek sources
-his "magnum opus"/great work;chronicles the history of the world form its creation to the deification of Julius Ceasar
-race and rhythm unsurpassed
-collection of satirical poems..published 35 B.C. to 33. B.C.
Who was Sulpicia?
-A roman woman writer who wrote elegies in latin that have been attributed to Tibullus
Which of the Augustan authors fought on the republican side at Philippi? Which of them was banished by Augustus?
-Quintus Horace Flaccus -Ovid and Julia
Who was the
patron of Vergil and Horace?
What does Ward write about the relationship of this patron and Augustus with the poets in their circle and the writings of these poets [p.
-he was Octavian's advisor and a strong patron and benefactor for the new generation of poets
-horace's first poem addresses his patron - Enabled the authors to concentrate on writing and ensured a public audience for, and the survival of, their works. Its begs the question of how many powerful writers failed if they could not find a powerful patron. (wrote of the needs of Augustus)
What are the main problems of our sources for this time (Julio-Claudians)?
-Neither biography nor history were scholarly..they were stories
-reliance on biased senatorial sources
-Authors could be biased by personal experience: Tacitus
List the dates of the reigns of the Julio-Claudian emperors.
For what good things is Tiberius known? for what bad things?
-Excellent admin; followed Augustus' policy to not expand; spent money carefully; cut taxes; large surplus at end of reign;
-accused of killing popular Germanicus in 19; killed his wife (Agrippina elder) and two sons; treason trials mar reign;helped sejanus scheme and murder to get power
What was Tiberius' relationship with the Senate?
-tried to give power to senate
What was Tacitus' opinion of the senate under
-Thought they were fit to be slaves
What actions did Caligula(Gaius) do that sum up his reign?
-Spends through excess money left by Tiberius
-resorts to taxes, confiscations, treason trials, and even a brothel with married women and boys..faked military action..believed he was a god
What was acceptable and what wasn't in regards to worshipping the emperor at Rome?
-usually not worshipped until after death
-augustus introduced it to encourge unity
-emperor's genius(spirit of creativity) and lares(protective spirits) worshipped
two shameful details are associated with Claudius' coming to power?
-Paid off Praetorian guard with huge donative(bonus paid to soldiers)
-came after murder of caligula..and he was hiding behind a curtain
What was Claudius like
physically and mentally?
-deformed but actually very bright
-became a scholar
What things, good and bad, were singled out by the lecture (Claudius)?
-made privy council by freedman;public works;conquest of britain
-lack of miltiary experience;aggressive foreign policy;easily manipulated by threats;purged senate
How did Claudius die?
-poisoned by wife Agrippina the younger to allow her son to become emperor instead of his
In what two activities was Nero especially interested
Cassius Dio, how did Burrus and Seneca deal with Nero when it came to running the empire?
-checked Agrippina trying to dispaly power
-Let nero live in idleness;dealt with everything as fair as they could;they were liked
-letting him do this led him to believe he could do whatever
-They let Nero indulge in the things he enjoyed while they in the meantime ran the government while nero was playing games
What major disaster occurred during Nero's reign, and what was the year?
-Fire of Rome
-blamed on christians
What was the
Golden House and why did it cause bad feelings among the people?
-Nero's Domus Aurea
-120 acres of downtown real estate after the fire instead of building what was needed
For what ―"first" is Nero
-first official persecution of christians
Who is Agrippina the Younger?
-Wife of Claudius who was in a incestious marriage
Who is Boudicca?
-Queen of the british Iceni tribe
-Celtic tribe who led uprising against occupying forces of Rome
-dealt with by Seneca and Burrus
Who is Britannicus?
-Son of Claudius...was the heir of cladius
-Nero eclipsed him..was murder before his 14th birthday during Nero's reign
Who is Germanicus?
-Adoptive son of Emperor Tiberius
-Father or emperor Caligula
-Brother of Emperor Cladius
-Maternal grandfather of Nero
Who is Messalina?
-Third wife of emperor Claudius and cousin of Nero
-was executed for conspiring against her husband
Who is Octavia?
-Virtuous wife of nero who was murder so he could marry Poppaea
What was the Praetorian Guard?
-The emperor's personal bodyguard of at least 4500 men
What is quinquennium Neronis?
-First 5 years of Nero's reign.
-marked by a wise and benefient administration due to seneca and burrhus
What is Sejanus?
-Equestrian prefect of Praetorian Guard, powerful position of trust
-schemed and murdered to get imperial power
-Exposed and killed in 31
What are the dates of the Flavian emperors?
How did the first Flavian emperor try to prevent rebellions in the military? (Vespasian)
-Proven military commander
-breaks up large concentrations of legions
What were the first Flavian emperor's fiscal policies?What were his policies towards provincials and citizenship? (Vespaasian)
-Smart spending, economy, higher and new taxes (urine tax);spent on infrastructure, edu, and the arts
-grants citizenship and rights to provincials;they are appointed to senate
What were the accomplishments of the second Flavian emperor?What marred his reign? (titus)
-Stopped treason trials;punished informers;Gave games to open Flavian Amphitheatre in 80
-Disasters: Fire in Rome, plague in Campania, 24 Aug 79 Mt. Vesuvius destroy Pompeii and Herculaneum
What marred the reign of the last Flavian emperor? What controversy surrounded him? How did he exercise his power? (Domitian)
-Plotted against his brother;treason trials became bloody;he became paranoid
-Did many treason trials to make money;was a reign of terror;senate was ruled by armed men..and romes nobles made exiles
What was the basic message of Flavian propaganda?
-I am emperor because I am destined to be
-I am better than those before me..if you try to get someone else, they will probably be worse
How did the Flavians use the
past in their propaganda?
-Prophecies: Ruler of the world would come from Judaea = vespasian and son Titus fought in Judaea
Who built the Temple of Peace? What did it commemorate?
-The Conquest of Jerusalem
What did the temple house and what was exhibited on its grounds?What was its
-Housed spoils of the Jewish War (68-73)
-Greek statuary from Nero's Domus Aurea
-promotes connection with Forum of augustus and temple of apollo
-Promoted times of peace under Vespasian
Who dedicated the Flavian Amphitheatre and in what year? How did it work into the propaganda of the regime?
-Converted a place once know for use by cruel king Nero to a place for the people
What did the Arch of Titus
commemorate and what is depicted on it?
-Titus' victories..including siege of Jerusalem in 70 AD
-Spoils of Jewish Temple and Titus crowned by Victory
What was the most notable and enduring thing built by the last Flavian emperor?
-The Colosseum was finished by him
-Domus Augustana:imperial residence
What was the alimenta program? how did it work? which emperor is assoiated with this?
-low-interst government loans given at fraction of the value of land used as collateral..interest on loan pays for orphans education
-Designed by Nerva..increased and organized under Trajan
What was the key reason for the succession of qualified leaders during this period?
Heirs to power were adopted for their ability to govern and not relatives
List the "good emperors" and their periods
-Antoninus Pius: 138-161
-Marcus Aurelius: 161-180
Who was the first
emperor of provincial origin?
-Trajan optimus princeps (Spain)
What was the Perpetual Edict, and under which emperor was it
-A collection of the law in a concise form so it could be used
Who set in law that a person was innocent until proven guilty, and that guilt was determined by a
majority vote of the judges?
Who deprived the paterfamilias of his power of life and death over his
Which emperor made it illegal for slave owners to kill, torture, or castrate their slaves?
Which emperor was given the title Optimus Princeps?
-official title had been reserved for Jupiter
Who was Antinous?
-Had a homosexual relationship with Emperor Hadrian
With which philosophical
school is the Meditations associated, and who was the author?
-Stoicism:reason, duty, discipline
Which emperor was forced to sell treasures from the emperor's palace, and why?
-Defensive Warfare: Parthia (161-165), Danube (167-175 & 178-180)
Why was Nerva a safe choice to be emperor? What sort of experience did he have? What was his most important act?
-An orator and jurist (not good enough to be dangerous)
-Had never governed a province or commanded an army
-His choice of successor
What was Tarjan's foreign policy and accomplishments?
-Believed in Expansion
-broke treaty of Domitian;Dacian gold and slaves;Games to celebrate..11,000 animals killed
-Promotes alimenta program,public works with newfound money:Forum of Trajan..1000' by 600'
-column of trajan..marble..100'high;each band tells narrative story of trajan
What were the positive and negative effects of Trajan's wars?
Dacian conquest (101-102 & 105-106)
-lot of money and slaves;new province
-more territory to govern and protect;took away a defensive buffer state
What financial problem did Trajan deal with in the provinces?
-interference in finances has unintended legacy of reduced local initiative
What were Hadrian's relations like with the senate and the people of Rome?
-Hated by senate
What was hadrians foreign policy, actions on the frontiers, and reform of the army?
-Abandoned recently acquired territory
-Traveled to personally inspect the army
-Hadrian's Wall..expanded limes (fortified bounday line) 345 miles in Germany
What major change did Hadrian make in government careers?whats the result from this change?
-military service not required for government jobs
What did Hadrian do for slaves?
-Legislation passed that gave slaves some protection from arbitrary treatment of masters
Where did hardrian spend most of his time during his last years?
-In 135 he retired to his estate at Tivoli, 18 miles east of Rome
-A personal theme park with idealized, romanticized
recreations of places he loved in Egypt, Greece, and
What was Antoninus Pius' professional background before becoming emperor?
-Was quaestor and praetor..and consul..and proconsul to administer Italia
How did Antoninus Pius' reign contrast with Hadrian's?
-23 uneventful years
-Shed no blue of citizen or enemy
-Maintenance was his specialty
What was the positive result of Antoninus Pius' management of the empire? What does Ward point out as a negative side of his management?
-Left largest surplus since Tiberius
-Overall allowed effectiveness of army and defenses to deteriorate
What challenges did Marcus Aurelius face in the course of his reign? How did he end the period of ―"good" emperors? What problems and trends does Ward point out at the end of chapter XXV?
-Wars with Parthia(161-165) and Danube(167-175 & 178-180)
-Plague of 166 devastates army and weakens defenses
-Avidius Cassius attempts to usurp
-Has a biological Son : Commodus
Which of the ―"good" emperors is associated with the Castel Sant' Angelo? What was the structure's original
-later used by popes as a fortress and castle..and is now a museum
Which two emperors are associated with surviving columns of Angelo? What is the subject of each column?
-Marcus Aurelius: Danubian wars
-Trajan optimus princeps: Dacian campaigns
Who was responsible for the largest imperial forum?
-Trajan 1000' by 600'
Which building is an architectural pun? Who built it?
-Temple of Venus and Roma
Who built the Pantheon? What does Ward dwell on in discussing this building? What is at the top of the
-An oculus (hole)
What was the approximate size of a legion, cohort, century?
-Legion: 5400 men
-Cohort: 480 Men
-Century: 80 Men (20 staff)
What was the
-The emperor's personal bodyguard of at least 4500 men (augustus);16000 (Vitellius);5000 (Domitian)
-protect emperor and fam..discourage plots
What symbol represented the legion? Beyond disgrace, why
was the loss of this a problem?
-had religious connotations if lost
What was a donative?
-A donation to soldiers
How did auxiliary and naval
service compare to regular army service?
-Auxiliary: equal in number to legions..non-citizens at first..light skirmishers and cavalry with native weapons..paid less than legionnaires..received citizenship but no bonus
-Inferior under control of army;were non-italian..low class..but free; ships dependent on land support; seas and rivers; navy had to transport troops, support land campaigns, suppress piracy..sailors pay same as aux..no bonus
What was the probatio?
-Interview held under authority of governor
-determiend citizenship status (legion or auxiliaries)
-medical exam:height requirement, overall healthy, body marks noted
Were there any
requirements or restrictions for someone enlisting as a legionnaire?
-cannot get married until later
-fishermen, fowlers, confectioners, weavers, and all those who appear to have been engaged in occupations appropriate to the women's quarters rejected
What sort of
advantages did a soldier enjoy?
-Viaticum (travel money)
-never go hungry;sanitary;money and will not under control of paterfamilias;soldiers tried in military courts
What are the basics of legatus, tribune, praefectus castrorum, centurion?
-Legatus: Commander of a legion; praetorian senator in 30s; picked by emperor; 3-4 years and didnt need experi
-Tribunes: Six per legion; junior officers (mid 20s to early 30s) one would be senatorial rank (late teens)..others equestrian; were staff officers to legatus; delt with soldier complaints; punished; kept records; in command after legatus
-P.Castrorum:third in command; experience soldier..promoted centurion with years of service (40-60 old); maintained food, munitions, training, etc
-Centurion: officicer..soldiers promoted after 12 years..commanded century..gave out punishment;Primus pilus..centurion of the first century of first cohort
What is the military mark?
-Macula (stain, spot)
-By around 400..tattoo or brand on hand
What are immunes
-Soldiers who were technicians or specialists of some kind
-surveyors, vets, blacksmiths, arrow makers, clerks
-had immunity from hard labor n cleaning
What is ballista
-shot Huge stones or arrows/bolts
What is testudo?
-formation used by Roman legions..wall of shields and on top
What is decimatio?
-humiliation for punishment: encampment outside walls..barley instead of wheat..sometimes entire unit disbanded
What was fustuarium?
-punishment to anyone who committed theft or lied, if you are immoral, or if you have been punished 3 times for same thing
-They are beat to death with a club
What was phalerae?
-sculpted disk worn on the breastplate of Soldiers who got an award
What is torques?
-another award (necklace, Celtic symbol of authority)
Describe the equipment and the weapons of a legionnaire
-Short sleeved wool tunic, boots, heavy cloak, tight leather trousers for aux, Lorica Segmentata (breastplate Iorn), Cingulum (belt with apron of metal studded strips), Galea (helmet)..officers word greek muscle breastplate.."Lorica Hamata" (chainmail), Lorica Squamata (scale armor)
-Pack (40 lbs)..rations, mess tin, ax, basket
-Gladius: for stabbing; Pilum: javelin..carried two; Scutum (shield) plywood leather metal
What was the length of service for a regular legionnaire before he was discharged?
What did an auxiliary receive when he was discharged?
-Citizenship for themselves and children
What was the
army's policy on marriage?
-No one for centurians and lower..could after 197
According to Aldrete what was required for a triumph
[see Aldrete pp. 176 (last paragraph) to ―"Arches" on p.178]?
-Foreign enemy casualities over 5k
-Only emperor or family could celebrate triumph
-in republic..only magistrates with imperium
How was the
triumphator dressed and made up?
-Crown of laurel and all purple; gold-embroidered toga; regalia as near divine; four-horse chariot..rode with captives and spoils
What limit was placed on triumphs during the empire?
What was the most important thing that Octavian received from Julius Caesar?
What is the Res
-Augustus' epitaph..recorded on two bronze tablets placed on pillars before his tomb..emphasizes honors received by him
-records his expenditures as a great benefactor
What was the senate's policy towards Octavian when he first appeared on the political
-They gave him big promises for his support..but they dont plan on giving him anything
Why was the Second Triumvirate more legitimate than the First Triumvirate?
-It was sanctioned by law
practice did the triumvirs use to address problems of finance and control?
-(postscriptions) killed people
-Packed senate and expanded magistracies for money
-created and increased taxes
-Solicited gifts and loans from wealthy
-Seized land for veterans
In which battle were
Caesar's assassins finally defeated, in which year was it fought, and who were the leaders of the assassins' forces?
-Two battles at Philippi
-Cassius and Brutus
What sort of behavior did Octavian exhibit after this battle and after the fall of
-He had been sick during the battle..but he spoke and treated his captives terribly.
-Anthony was treated as a conqueror
What problems did Octavian face in Italy?
-Suffed two terrible defeats..
-lost and had to run to Anthony to save him
-all the captors lashed out at him for being cruel
How did Antony lose favor in Rome during the 30s?
-Parthian (36) - lost 3rd of his army
-Donations of Alexandria (winter 34/33)
-Poor treatment of dutiful Roman wife Octavia, sister of Octavia, and eventual divorce (32)
How did Octavian gain favor?
-won military victories that brough order to Italy: Sextus pompey(36), Illyrian pirates(35-33)
-Golden statue in forum said order was brought to land and sea
-ensured cheap grain and water for Rome
-married Livia of the Gens
-carried out public work projects
-restored temples and cults and father's buildings..and promoted old-time values
What mythological identifications were made by Antony,
Cleopatra and Octavian?
Anthony: Dionysus and Hercules (osiris)
Cleopatra: Isis (aphrodite/venus)
Octavian: Applo (rational, light, western)
How did Octavian turn Antony's mythological association against him?
-Dionysus: irrational, intoxication
-Hercules: drunk, fits of violence, wore women's clothes and spun wool for queen of lydia
According to Plutarch, what made Cleopatra attractive?
-her presence was irresistible.
-she was charming, many languages, etc
-pleasure to hear her voice
In which battle did Octavian finally
defeat Antony and Cleopatra, and in which year was it fought?
-Battle of Actium
-They commit suicide in 30
Be ready to identify Lepidus,
Sextus Pompey, Octavia, Maecenas, and Agrippa
-Lepidus: part of triumvirate,slaughter was stopped by Antony; removed in 36bc
-SexPompey: controlled areas that octavian "received";disrupted grain shipments;defeated in 36bc by Agrippa
-Octavia: Antony's dutiful Roman wife
-Maecenas: diplomat and political advisor for Octavian
Agrippa: commander and admin for Octavian; beat pompey
On which official powers did Augustus rely to run the state?
-Proconsular imperium maius (27): Gave him command of provinces..so he had army;maius=can overule governers and senate;he was like third consul
-Full tribunician power (23): makes up for loss of civil control;can convene senate;can submit legislation to assembly..veto power, aligned with people
How did Augustus improve on Julius Caesar's exercise of power?
-rejected dictatorship;powers granted legally and needed renewal;perpetual consulship
What do the titles princeps and augustus mean?
-First man (first man of the state)
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