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BIO EXAM 3: Ch. 32, 33, 34, 40, 41
Terms in this set (117)
Sponges and ctenophores have both been proposed as basal metazoans. Which of the following types of data support the idea that sponges are the basal group?
recent phylogenetic evidence, fossil steroid evidence, molecular rock, lack of tissues in sponges, and structures of collar cells.
which of the following characteristics represents the oldest branch point in animal phylogeny?
true tissues or no tissues
What is the germ layer tissue of skin?
in the earthworm body plan, the digestive system can be described as a tube within a tube. where would you expect to find most of the tissues that developed from endoderm?
lining the straw
some researchers claim that sponge genomes have homeotic genes, but no Hox genes. If true, how would this impact the phylogenetic tree of animals?
it would confirm the identity of sponges as basal animals
all animals can trace their lineages to a common ancestor that lived when?
the common ancestor is likely a protist that lived during the Neoproterozoic Era.
What was an early selective advantage of a coelom in animals?
it contributed to a hydrostatic skeleton, allowing greater range of motion.
which of the following animals does NOT have a body cavity?
Flatworms are acoelomates, even those that are not classified as acoels.
Which of the following lines of evidence would allow you to classify a worm as a nematode and NOT an annelid?
it sheds its external skeleton to grow
Gastrulation is the process that directly forms the ________.
gastrulation gives rise to how many germ layers?
either two or three
Which of the following statements about animals is incorrect and why?
they are multicellular
they are eukaryotes
they have tissues, organs, and organ systems
they ingest their food
they are heterotrophic
"they have tissues, organs, and organ systems"
this is because sponges are considered animals, and they lack these levels of organization
During embryological development, the anus forms before the mouth in _____.
how can someone tell if an organism is an animal or a fungus?
look for cell walls under a microscope.
fungal cells have cell walls, and animal cells do not.
the earliest ancestors of about half of all extant animal phyla can be traced back to_________.
the Cambrian explosion
the distinction between sponges and other animal phyla is based mainly on the presence vs. absence of ________.
one characteristic unique to animals is ___________.
which of the following groups of organisms has flagella associated with its method of feeding?
which of the following characteristics is exhibited by most hydrozoans?
both polyps and medusa forms
which sense would be most directly affected by removing or damaging an insects antennae?
which of the following statements correctly describes the characteristic of the phylum Platyhelminthes?
they are dorsoventrally flattened.
this is why they are also known as flatworms.
which of the following characteristics would enable you to argue an animal is more closely related to a nematode than it is to an annelid?
it has a hemocoel
the feeding stage of cycliophorans is best described as _____________.
sessile and captures food in a manner similar to that of animals with lophophores.
Members of the phylum Mollusca __________.
are soft bodied and often covered by a shell
which of the following statements applies to both nematodes and arthropods?
grow in conjunction with shedding of their exoskeleton.
against which of the following do the circular and longitudinal muscles of annelids work?
The ____________, characterized by a single opening, is the digestive compartment of cnidarians.
Our understanding of many of the evolutionary relationships among animals changed after those phylogenies were based on morphological and molecular data (as opposed to only using morphological data). What do these changes indicate?
molecular studies add additional information to morphological studies and improve our understanding of evolutionary history.
the animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is ____________.
What evidence supports the statement: the animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animal kingdom is Porifera.?
-lack of true tissues in sponges.
-close similarity between choanocytes and choanoflagellates
which of the following organisms have lophophores?
ectoprocts and brachiopods
what structure is responsible for gas exchange in most spiders?
the extensive surface area of book lungs is a structural adaptation that enhances the exchange of O2 and CO2 between the hemolymph and air
which of the following are thought to be most closely related to humans?
sea stars and humans are deutersomes
a land snail, a clam, and an octopus all share what?
what evidence suggests that vertebrates are more closely related to echinoderms than are any other invertebrate phyla?
shared DNA sequences
which of the following is most likely a characteristic of the earliest tetrapod fossils?
they indicate limited adaptation to life on land
there are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _____________.
method of reproduction
egg laying mammals
as hominins have evolved, ________.
sexual dimorphism was significantly reduced
what is sexual dimorphism associated with?
what best explains the different body shapes found in skates and rays compared to sharks?
sharks are streamlined for active swimming at mid-depths, while skates move about mostly on the ocean bed.
adult urochordates (tunicates) lack notochords, even though larval urochordates have them. What is the function of notochords in larval urochordates?
they aid in swimming
suppose you find a chordate with a long, slender, limbless body slithering on the ground. The organism is most likely a(n) _____________.
which of these traits is most strongly associated with the evolution of bipedalism?
repositioning of foramen magnum
Jaws evolved ____________.
by modification of the skeletal rods that previously supported the anterior pharyngeal slits.
What is a similarity between sharks and ray-finned fishes?
they have a lateral line that is sensitive to vibrations
Which statement about deuterostomes is false?
-all deuterostomes are triploblastic and have 3 tissue layers.
-all deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
-all deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.
-all deuterostomes have a coelom.
-all deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
*in deuterostome lineage, only adult echinoderms exhibit radial symmetry.
which structure is NOT an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?
T or F? An organism that is radially symmetric has many well developed head regions.
what characteristic distinguishes echinoderms from the other two deuterostome lineages?
their body plan
________________ exhibit a unique body plan characterized by an endoskeleton and a water vascular system.
what 4 specific morphological traits characterize a chordate?
-a dorsal nerve chord
-pharyngeal gill slits
-a tail behind the anus
which structure can be used for feeding and gas exchange?
pharyngeal gill slits
all of the following represent diagnostic features of chordates except for one. Which is it and why?
-pharyngeal slits or cleft
-a muscular, post-anal tail
-a hollow dorsal nerve chord
vertebrae; because lancelets and tunicates are two subgroups of chordates that lack vertebrae
which of the following chordates is most likely to look the least like other chordates and why?
adult tunicate; because an adult tunicate does not have a notochord (or vertebrae), a nerve chord, or a post anal tail. Only chordate feature it retains is pharyngeal slits.
what is the significance of the evolution of Hox gene clusters during vertebrae evolution?
duplication of how gene made increased morphological complexity possible
what did the Haikouella, a primitive early chordate fossil, lack that vertebrates have?
a skull and ear organs
what is a characteristic only of truly terrestrial animals with no need to return to water at any stage of the life cycle?
__________ are the primates most closely related to humans.
apes, such as chimpanzees
_________ are the oldest known primate group.
what are the primates that spend the most time walking upright called?
which arthropoid group consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whole forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?
which primate group lives in trees in central and South America and have nostrils that are wide open and far apart?
new world monkeys
unlike eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials:
have some embryonic development outside uterus
what could be considered most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
a sturdy-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had skeletal supports similar to those of terrestrial vertebrates.
The temperature-regulating center of vertebrate animals is located in the
Elephants can often be observed cooling off by spraying water over their bodies with their trunks. What type of heat exchange is occurring?
what tissues line most exchange surfaces of multicellular animals?
what is a characteristic shared by all types of muscle tissue?
interactions between actin and myosin
jet lag is due to disruption of _______.
a counter current heat exchange enables an animal to:
reduce the loss of body heat to the environment
what is a typical characteristic of connective tissues?
relatively few cells and a large amount of extracellular matrix
what is a steady state In which internal conditions of an organism are kept within a narrow range without regard to the external conditions?
what is NOT a function of the epithelium?
to allow the internal environment to alter its conditions to match those of the external environment
enzyme activity depends on conditions within a cell, such as __________ and ____________, which must be kept within a certain narrow range.
T or F? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.
which component of a homeostatic system compares sensory information to a target value?
an integrator sends instructions to an effector based on ________________.
which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?
What kind of feedback is this: after you eat, insulin stimulates the lowering of blood sugar levels.
what type of tissue is blood
what type of epithelium would you expect to find covering a surface subject to physical force?
what type of epithelial tissue, found in the intestines, absorbs nutrients?
simple columnar epithelium
its specialized for absorption and secretion
what type of tissues, found in the lungs, permits gas exchange by diffusion?
simple squamous epithelium
this is a thin single layer of cells that allows for diffusion
What type of epithelial tissue lines kidney tubules?
simple cuboidal cells
How does connective tissue differ from the other three major tissue types?
connective tissue often consists of relatively few cells embedded in an extracellular matrix
Describe loose connective tissue
it's a loose weave of fivers that functions as a packing material.
for example, to hold organs in place
cartilage is found:
at the ends of long bones such as the femur
what is the connective tissue specialized for transport of substances such as nutrients, waste, and gases?
cardiac muscle is the only muscle composed of _________ fibers.
three parts of the neuron are:
cell body, dendrites, axon
what is the first thing that happens when the body temperature increases above normal body temperature?
the thermostat in the hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms.
what occurs when body temp. decreases below normal body temperature?
blood vessels in the skin constrict to prevent heat loss
nutrient rich blood from the intestine is carried to the liver via which vessel?
hepatic portal vein
Marsha discovers a mammalian skull with large, wide molars, and thin incisors only at the front of the jaw. The skull was lacking canines. What type of diet did this mammal likely eat?
leafy plants, trees, and shrubs
what converts pepsinogen to its active form in the stomach?
what is one concern when using antibiotics?
antibiotics may also kill the beneficial bacteria of the microbiome, thereby disrupting digestive health
Fat digestion yields fatty acids and glycerol, whereas protein digestion yields amino acids. what is true regarding these processes?
both use water molecules when breaking bonds (hydrolysis)
in a hydra, digestion is completed __________.
megaloblastic anemia results from a vitamin deficiency and causes abnormalities in RBC production and neurological issues. Megaloblastic anemia may be caused by a deficiency in what vitamin?
secretin stimulates the ___________ to secrete __________.
cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the _________ to secrete____________.
pancreas; pancreatic enzymes
the presence of ___________ and ___________ in the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete cholecystokinin (CCK).
fatty acids.....amino acids
the acidity of the stomach contents triggers the small intestine to secrete a hormone known as _________.
bile is continuously produced by the _________ and stored in the ___________ until CCK triggers its release and its secreted into the small intestine.
Your small intestine can absorb ____ without it being further digested.
Starch can be broken down into the disaccharide known as _____.
main component of gastric juice:
what are the four stages of food processing in order?
ingestion, digestion, absorption, elimination
the gastrovascular cavity differs from the alimentary canal in that only the gastrovascular cavity ______________.
has only a single opening
what is an example of positive feedback in the lumen of the stomach?
pepsin digests molecules of pepsinogen, producing more pepsin.
*this is positive feedback because the product of the digestion reaction, pepsin, catalyzes further digestion, producing more pepsin, and so on.
how do hydrogen ions (H+) and chloride ions (Cl-) get into the lumen of the stomach?
H+ is actively transported from parietal cells into the lumen, while Cl- diffuses from parietal cells into the lumen.
the epithelium that lines the stomach has many deep inholdings, or pits. In what way do these pits function as glands?
they secrete gastric juice into the main chamber of the stomach
how do glucagon and insulin differ?
Insulin causes some cells to take up glucose, whereas glucagon causes some cells to secrete glucose.
which of the following could result in a blood sugar level that is too high?
A) an individuals insular receptors are defective
B) an individual has an autoimmune disorder that destroys the beta cells of the pancreas.
C) a diabetic injects too much insulin
A and B
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