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Chapter 6 Bio
Terms in this set (27)
A cell's complete complement of DNA is called its genome.
Difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic genome
Structure of the genome
What does somatic cells are diploid mean
They contain two sets of matched chromosomes
What does gametes are haploid mean
Contain one set of 23 chromosomes
Number of chromosomes humans have
The matched pairs of chromosomes in a diploid organism
Homologous chromosomes are the same length and have specific nucleotide segments
Location of a gene on a chromosome
Stages of the cell cycle
Interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
Stages of Mitosis
First and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
The second stage of mitosis, in which the nuclear envelope fragments and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
Second part of the mitotic phase during which cell division is completed by the physical separation of the cytoplasmic components into two daughter cells
Types of cytokinesis
Plant and Animal
A nondividing state occupied by cells that have left the cell cycle, sometimes reversibly.
What cells participate in G0 phase?
Nerve and mature cardiac cells
G1, G2, M
Checks the surroundings to make sure the conditions are favorable and the cell is healthy enough to enter the next stage
Bars entry to miotic phase and assesses Cell size, Protein reserves, Complete DNA replication and
Spindle assembly checkpoint. Mitosis will not continue if chromosomes are not properly aligned.
What causes cancer?
A gene mutation gives rise to a faulty protein that participates in the process of cell reproduction (mutations)
What organisms perform binary fission?
Prokaryotes and bacteria
How does binary fission work?
The single circular chromosome is replicated and the two copies of the chromosome move to opposite ends of the cell. Division of the cytoplasm of the cell quickly follows. Each of the daughter cells contains one copy of the chromosome so they are genetically identical.
What are the stages of binary fission?
DNA replication and cell elongation
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