Outward signs of what is going on inside the body, including respiration; pulse; skin color, temperature, and condition (pulse capillary refill in infants and children); pupils; and blood pressure
The rhythmic beats felt as the heart pumps blood through the arteries
The number of pulse beats per minute
A rapid pulse; any pulse rate above 100 beats per minute
A slow pulse; any pulse rate below 60 beats per minute
The rhythm (regular or irregular) and force (strong or weak) of the pulse
The pulse felt at the wrist
The pulse felt in the upper arm
The pulse felt along the large carotid artery on either side of the neck
The act of breathing in and breathing out
The number of breaths taken in 1 minute
The normal or abnormal (shallow, labored, or noisy) character of breathing
The regular or irregular spacing of breaths
The black center of the eye
In the pupils of the eyes, reacting to light by changing size
The force of blood against the walls of the blood vessels
Systolic Blood Pressure
The pressure created when the heart contracts and forces blood out into the arteries
Diastolic Blood Pressure
The pressure remaining in the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is relaxed and refilling
The cuff and gauge used to measure blood pressure
The major artery of the arm
Listening. A stethoscope is used to auscultate for characteristic sounds.
Touching or feeling. A pulse or blood pressure may be palpated with the fingertips.
Blood Pressure Monitor
Machine that automatically inflates a blood pressure cuff and measures blood pressure
An electronic device for determining the amount of oxygen carried in the blood, known as the oxygen saturation or SpO2
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2)
The ratio of the amount of oxygen present in the blood to the amount that could be carried, expressed as a percentage.
An indication of a patient's condition that is objective, or can be observed by another person; an indication that can be seen, heard, smelled, or felt by the EMT or others
An indication of a patient's condition that cannot be observed by another person but rather is subjective, or felt and reported by the patient.
The present and past medical history of a patient, so called because the elements of the history begin with the letters of the word sample: signs/symptoms, allergies, medications, pertinent past history, last oral intake, events leading to the injury or illness
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