A, B, D
It is important to avoid immobility in patients with burns of the hands, feet, or major joints. Measures must be taken to maintain the function of the hands, feet, and major joints. Nursing interventions to maintain range of motion, applying splints to keep the extremities in a position of function, and individually wrapping fingers and toes are
necessary to maintain function of the hands, feet, and joints. Effective pain management is necessary to encourage mobility.
A, B, D, E, G, H
Electrical injuries vary in severity of injury by the intensity of energy exposed to the body. Manifestations and complications may include cardiac dysrhythmias or cardiopulmonary arrest, hypoxia, deep tissue necrosis, rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney
injury, compartment syndrome, long bone fractures, acute cataract formation, and neurological deficits (including seizures). Hypertension and peptic ulcer disease are not direct consequences of electrical burn injuries.
In hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome, the laboratory results are similar to those of diabetic ketoacidosis, with three major exceptions. What differences would you expect to see in patients with hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome?
a) Lower serum glucose, lower osmolality, and greater ketosis
b) Lower serum glucose, lower osmolality, and milder ketosis
c) Higher serum glucose, higher osmolality, and greater ketosis
d) Higher serum glucose, higher osmolality, and no ketosis
Cerebral salt wasting may occur after head trauma and is characterized by low sodium in the face of classic physical and laboratory signs of fluid volume deficit or dehydration, including tachycardia, hypotension, dry mucous membranes, weight loss, and poor skin turgor. The patient also may experience the classic signs of hyponatremia, including a serum sodium less than 135 mg/dL, confusion, lethargy, seizures, and coma.
Normal glomerular filtrate is basically protein free and contains electrolytes, including sodium, chloride, and phosphate, and nitrogenous waste products, such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid, in amounts similar to those in plasma. Red blood cells, albumin, and globulin are too large to pass through the healthy glomerular membrane. Their presence in urine may indicate glomerular damage.
Normal glomerular filtrate is basically protein free and contains electrolytes, including sodium, chloride, and phosphate, and
nitrogenous waste products, such as creatinine, urea, and uric acid, in amounts similar to those in plasma. Red blood cells, albumin, and globulin are too large to pass through the healthy glomerular membrane.
A, B, C
Angina may occur anywhere in the chest, neck, arms, or back, but the most commonly described is pain or pressure behind the sternum. The pain often radiates to the left arm but can also radiate down both arms and to the back, the shoulder, the jaw, and/or the neck. In the statement about treating symptoms with nitroglycerin, the word "several" is vague.