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honors world history test #4
Terms in this set (34)
Pope Leo III enhanced the power and authority of Charlemagne ________________________________________.
by crowning Charlemagne the emperor of the Rome
Under feudalism, serfs were peasants who paid tribute to the lord in the form of crops and labor. Peasants receive in return _________________________________________.
protection and the ability to farm on the lord's lands
_____________________ had the GREATEST effect on the lives of average Europeans during the Middle Ages.
The Catholic Church
According to feudal custom, landowners called lords gave plots of land to nobles, or vassals. In return, the vassals paid taxes and pledged _______________________________.
political loyalty and military service
Europe, 900-1200 CE
/ nobles \
/ knights \
/ peasants \
/ Serfs \
This diagram illustrates _________________.
The bubonic plague affected the medieval European social system by _______________________________.
contributing to the decline of feudalism due to the high death rate among peasants
It is believed that the fourteenth-century outbreaks of the bubonic plague originated in the steppes of central Asia. The plague MOST LIKELY spread to Europe by ___________________________________.
traders traveling between Europe and Asia along the path of the Silk Road who accidentally transported the plague to Europe.
The pattern of transmission of the bubonic plague during the fourteenth century can MOST accurately be described as _________________________.
primarily spreading along commercial trade routes between Europe and Asia
The transmission routes of the bubonic plague trace approximately the same path as _________________________.
the Silk Road trade network.
The Crusades ultimately resulted in ___________________________.
increased trade and cultural diffusion between European and Islamic cultures.
Overall, the Crusades from 1095 to 1291 were considered __________________________.
a failure for Christians because they failed to recapture and retain control of the Holy Land.
One of the long-term effects of the Crusades was ____________________.
relations between Islamic and Christian cultures were damaged immensely.
List 3 changes in European society was caused by Gutenberg's printing press during the Renaissance:
a)Cheaper and faster production of books encouraged increases in literacy
b)Large numbers of people were exposed to the ideas of Protestant reformers
c)The printing press made communication easier, leading to scientific advancements
Renaissance humanists differed from traditional medieval philosophers because ________________________.
they focused primarily on the importance of the individual.
One of the MAIN focuses of study by Renaissance humanists was _________________________.
ancient Greek and Roman philosophy.
One of the conditions that contributed to the birth of the Renaissance in Florence was _________________________________.
the growth of wealth in Florence the led to increased patronage for local artists.
Renaissance art represented _________________________.
the rebirth of ancient Greek and Roman culture.
Renaissance humanist emphasized learning the Greek language as part of classical studies because __________________________________.
it allowed them to expand on their scientific knowledge by reading about ancient scientist who were over looked during the Middle Ages.
The invention of the printing press contributed to advances in science during the Renaissance because ___________________________.
it allowed for the rapid spread of new ideas and information.
The Protestant Reformation and the European Renaissance similar because ________________________.
both encouraged people to question religion.
___________________________ was one cause of the Protestant Reformation.
Corruption among Catholic clergy
________________________ was a church practice that Martin Luther specifically opposed.
The selling of indulgences
Martin Luther was dissatisfied with the Catholic Church because _______________________.
he thought that indulgences were fraudulent and hurting people
Martin Luther's view of salvation challenged the Catholic Church because ___________________________.
he believed salvation could only be achieved through faith and could not be granted by the church.
"The Pope is no judge of matters pertaining to God's word and faith; the true Christian must examine and judge for himself." a quote by Martin Luther. This quote is associated the historical time period known as ______________.
Johannes Gutenberg helped launch the printing revolution in fifteenth-century Europe. _______________________ was a direct consequence of Gutenberg's efforts.
The increases in literacy throughout Europe
______________ was the first text printed on Gutenberg's printing press.
Martin Luther and Johannes Gutenberg are connected because ______________________________.
Gutenberg's printing press led to the rapid spread of Luther's ideas during the Protestant Reformation.
__________________________ was the historical event that contributed the MOST to this distribution of religions in Europe.
The Protestant Reformation
In contrast to earlier scholars, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton believed that theories about the natural would should be based on __________________________.
repeated experimentation and careful observation.
_____________________________ was a consequence of Henry VIII issuing the Act of Supremacy, and the distribution of Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses.
The end of unified Christianity in Western Europe
___________________________________ which contributed to the English Reformation and the creation of the Church of England.
The pope denied Henry VIII's request for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon
________________ permanently established the English monarch as the head of the Anglican Church.
Mary I of England was known as "Bloody Mary" because _________________________.
she viciously oppressed Protestants during her reign.
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