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Universal Justice Exam 2 terms
Terms in this set (35)
error of assuming that no one in a group perceives things as we do
Inspired by the work of Merton, the focus is on social institutions: This is where culture (values, goals, beliefs, norms) and social structure (the way status and roles are organized into predictable relationships) are united. Social institutions are organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors centered on basic social needs- "pillars of society anchored in social structure and supported by culture"- serves to channel our behavior. Messner and Rosenfeld argue societies have three main categories of institutions: Economic, political, and civic institutions (church, family, education)
democratic peace theory
Democracies are less likely to engage in genocide. In a world of global interdependence and strong institutional constraints on decision-making, it becomes more difficult for such governments to use force, particularly when other democracies are involved. Also, shared norms make it likely democracies will not conflict with one another and will bow to expectations of other countries. Not only does this influence how they respond to other countries, but also how they respond to and interact with their own citizens. This theory was developed in terms of modern states, when democracy has become the standard regime type for states with modern market economies.
a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent
Another source of disruption can come from a major change in the world order, e.g. after the cold war ended, several civil wars broke out. Superpower dominance had repressed ethnic hostilities, then they erupted once the bi-polar world collapsed. In the aftermath, there also was devolution of power and means of violence, thus no control from central authority to set boundaries on activities
Germany is sometimes seen as an exception, but this overlooks the fact the context for the rise of Hitler was a substantially weakened state and struggling interwar democracy, i.e. state failure created vulnerability that led to Hitler's rise.
collective status frustration
In the context of wide scale anomie, the emergence and strengthening of deviant counter culture with radical ideology becomes more likely. The stage is set for a charismatic leader promising a return to glory using violent (illegitimate) means
Norms are activated to address threat, but in this case these may be new norms that have replaced earlier (less violent) norms.
ideology can be used to "make ready," becoming a precondition. In context of socio-economic and/or political upheaval the group controlling power can use their position not only for creating policies aimed at polarizing social divisions (colonialism and post-colonial divisions), but also disseminating messages of hate. These pre-genocidal policies "stoke the fire of conflict" (Hinton 2005, setting the stage for genocide, awaiting a "turning point."
Hutu extremists/trained militia that planned and carried out genocide
Black Arabic-speaking militia responsible for most of the Darfur genocide
Interstate Commerce Commission
Rwandan Patriotic Front - formed in 1988 following the Hutu take over the the 1950s. A group of mostly Tutsi rebels who fight against the Hutu rule
the act of people pledging themselves as servants in exchange for money for passage, and are subsequently paid too little to regain their freedom
slavery or otherwise making someone work against his/her will
is a form of slavery in which a person signs a work contract, receiving food and shelter from an employer, but is threatened when he or she tries to leave the contract.
The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purpose of a commercial sex act. An individual is considered a victim of trafficking if they are coerced, forced, or deceived into engaging in a commercial sex act, such as prostitution, or maintained in prostitution through one of these means after initially consenting.
A form of human trafficking in which an individual is exploited as a domestic worker in a private residence. Involuntary domestic workers are often underpaid, if paid at all. In some cases, domestic servitude is the product of debt bondage.
Absolute legal ownership of another person, including the right to buy or sell that person.
an owner of enslaved people in the institution of chattel slavery.
a person who owns slaves
Trade and Development Act
Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act
is a victim-centered law. It ensures the criminal justice community views trafficking victims as victims of a crime, even if they are living in the United States illegally. The law no longer treats them as aliens, but as victims of a crime with rights. Under federal law, trafficking victims can be U.S. citizens or legal or illegal immigrants.
End Modern Slavery Initiative Act
Office on Trafficking in Persons
An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
An organization that works to end child labor
Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act
Trade Facilitation and Trade Enforcement Act of 2015
[Prosecutorial Remedies and Other Tools to End the Exploitation of Children Today Act] - replaces COPA, makes it illegal to send or receive an image that is indistinguishable from that of a minor in a sexual situation.
Criminalized human trafficking and established procedures for government response
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