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HSP - CH 12
Terms in this set (58)
locations that vary from left to right relative to the listener
specifies how far the sound source is from the listener
sound locations that are up and down relative to the listener
perception of where sounds are located in an area
perception of the location of a sound source
characteristic of a sound, providing information regarding the area of a sound source
sound localization indication that involves both ears
interaural level difference (ILD)
contrast in the sound pressure between the left and right ears
interaural time difference (ITD)
occurrence when a sound is positioned closer to one ear than the other
cone of confusion
surface in which sound's location information is ambiguous
sound localization indication that involves one ear
distribution of frequencies reaching the ear that are associated with specific locations of a sound
posterior belt area
locale toward the back of the brain involved in auditory processing
anterior belt area
front of the posterior strap in the temporal lobe, which is involved in perceiving sound
noise that is transmitted directly from a noise source to the ears
noise that reaches a listener's ears after being reflected from a surface
study of how sounds are reflected in rooms
sound environment which includes the locations and qualities of individual sound sources
misconception that occurs when successive notes are presented alternately to both ears
representation of a familiar sequence of pitches that is stored in a person's memory
experience of a sequence of pitches as belonging together
organization of pitches around the note associated with a composition's key
set of rules that specify how notes and chords are combined in music
set of grammatical rules that specify correct sentence construction
series of changes across time in a temporal pattern
equally spaced interval of time, which occurs even if there are no notes
organization of beats into bars or measures
mechanism in the inner ear that is responsible for balance and sensing the body's position
use of a combination of senses
process of determining what people are saying by observing their lip and facial movements
process of locating objects by high-frequency pulses and sensing the echo reflected from objects
auditory locale in the temporal lobe that sends and receives signals
primary auditory cortex (A1)
area of the temporal lobe that receives signals via nerve fibers
In the second presentation, when the sound comes mostly from the right speaker, why specifically do you perceive the source of the sound as coming from your right?
a. Because the sound that reaches your right ear is more intense than that reaching your left ear.
A sound source located where will not produce an interaural level difference?
a. Directly in front of or behind you.
When the reverberation time of a room is very long, what happens to the pleasantness of music?
a. It is unpleasant; the sounds persist too long, so they sound muddled.
When the reverberation time of a room is very short, what happens to the pleasantness of music?
a. It is unpleasant; the sounds do not persist long enough, so they sound "dead."
Why is auditory scene analysis necessary to perceive different sound sources?
a. Because environmental sounds are all layered on the basilar membrane simultaneously.
Why is auditory scene analysis more difficult than visual scene analysis?
a. Because there is no spatial information on the auditory receptors.
What term describes the experience you have at higher tempos?
a. Auditory stream segregation.
When the sounds are played slowly:
a. They appear to come from a single sound source.
What is the effect of repeating the series of tones many times?
a. The high and low tones begin to become perceptually separate, as if coming from two sources.
Why do you perceive a "galloping" sensation at certain times during the demonstration?
a. Because the similarity of the tones causes you to perceive a single, alternating sound source.
Why do you perceive the "white" and "black" tones as coming from different sound sources?
a. Because they have different timbres.
Why is condition 2 (distractors) harder to perform than condition 3 (distractors and captors)?
a. Because the distractors are grouped with the captors due to their similarity of pitch.
Why, in the second demonstration, do you perceive a single, continuous tone?
a. Because the noise "fills in the gaps" of the tone.
Why does auditory "good continuation" occur?
a. Because, in nature, sounds that stay constant (or change smoothly) often come from the same source.
How is it that you are able to perceive two different melodies when they are interleaved, as in this demonstration?
a. Melody schemas allow us to segregate the interleaved melodies into separate streams of sound.
Laura is at the beach. She hears the seagulls, the waves crashing, and children laughing as they play in the distance. These sounds are creating what is known as an auditory _____ around Laura.
Janet is holding her phone out in front of her at arm's length, equidistant from her left and right ears. She has it on speakerphone. She then moves her hand straight up and down, increasing and decreasing the sound source's elevation, with the source still equidistant from her two ears. If she was not holding the phone herself, she would not be able to indicate the elevation of the sound source because the source is equidistant and the time and level differences are zero. What concept does this scenario best illustrate?
a. cone of confusion
Dr. Bandan studies the subcortical structures in the auditory pathway. He is particularly interested in the auditory structures in the brainstem. Which structures does Dr. Bandan study?
b. superior olivary nucleus
Leslie is plotting a barn owl's neuron firing rate against the interaural time difference. She is measuring the ITD _____ curves.
Mitch has damage to his auditory what pathway. Which of the following difficulties might Mitch experience?
Dr. Canine conducts an experiment where she deactivates a cat's posterior auditory areas. The findings will most likely indicate that this disrupts the cat's ability to _____.
a. locate sounds
Greg has a home theater system with speakers situated in various locations around the room. He sits in a chair with a speaker right behind it. He perceives that the sound from the television is coming from that speaker. What is Greg experiencing?
b. precedence effect
Erin is focusing on the experience of a sequence of pitches as belonging together in her current musical studies. Which term describes Erin's area of interest?
Bruce is studying the organization of beats into bars or measures, in which the first beat in each bar often accented. In this aspect of his study, Bruce is most focused on _____.
Dr. Derek conducts an experiment where he presents two sequences of notes simultaneously through earphones, one to the right ear and one to the left. The notes presented to each ear jump up and down, meaning that they do not create a scale. However, the results indicate that the listeners perceived smooth sequences of notes in each ear, with the higher notes in the right ear and the lower ones in the left ear. What effect is Dr. Derek researching?
a. scale illusion
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