Patterns of relations between immigrants and host societies
Cross Cultural Psychology Exam 4
Terms in this set (63)
(n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend;
Adapting to the beliefs, values and practices of a new cultural setting
the established and dominant society within which immigrant groups seek accommodation
Migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
Linkages between home and host countries through international migration; extending beyond the boundaries, interests, etc, of a single nation
Most recently, acculturation researchers
have emphasized the importance of the ____ ______ in the acculturation processes adopted by immigrants.
uni-dimensional acculturation model
represents cultural change on a linear bipolar continuum,
going from the heritage culture to the host culture
multiculturalism acculturation model
where acculturation processes are seen to take place independently in the home and host
cultures and may also involve multiple domains
Criticism of uni-dimensional model
too simplistic and does not view identification with home and host culture as counterbalancing forces but rather as separate forces
benefit of uni-dimensional model
showed two separate ends of the extreme for cultural identification (bipolar relationship)
Balance (biculturalism) acculturation model
Acculturation model that views bi-culturalism as the middle ground between assimilation and separation
Benefit of Balance (biculturalism) acculturation model
improved uni-dimensional approach
Criticism of Balance (biculturalism) acculturation model
this model was skewed in that it viewed heritage and host culture as orthogonal(independent) rather than interdependent;
failed to distinguish between individuals who identified strongly with both cultures and
those who identified weakly with both cultures.
Multidimensional acculturation model
most comprehensive model (benefit); where acculturation processes are seen to take place independently in the home and host cultures and may also involve multiple domains.
two underlying assumptions of the multidimensional models of acculturation
The first one views acculturation processes as functioning in various separate domains, such as in attitudes, values,
behaviors, language and cultural identity.
The second assumption frames orientations towards home and host cultures as independent domains, as in Berry's classification of acculturation strategies(integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization) .
4 acculturation strategies within the multidimensional acculturation model
integration, assimilation, separation, marginalization
it is important to maintain
both cultural identity and to have positive relations with the host society
only positive relations with the host society are important
only maintaining cultural heritage is of importance
neither outcome is important ( maintaining positive relations with host society or maintaining cultural heritage)
Regions of the world with highest immigrant level
Europe, North America, and Oceania
European countries with the highest immigration level
Germany, Netherlands, and Italy
Criticisms of the Multidimensional acculturation model (Particularly Berry's Model)
***Some researchers have argued that the concept of marginalization is not a viable one, since migrants do not choose to be marginalized, but rather may involuntarily be forced to adopt it as an outcome.
***marginalization is not a viable one because some immigrants do not identify with host or heritage culture (individualistic acculturation strategy) and may be cosmopolitans identifying with several cultures
*** Discrimination within the host society may skew the selection of the acculturation strategy to separation or marginalization rather than integration (which is preferred most by immigrants)----> may need to be expanded
In most multicultural societies, the current discourse centers on the question whether immigrants should assimilate or integrate. Berry and many other researchers have found that_____ is the most preferred and most 'adaptive' strategy for immigrants.
Although immigrants may prefer integration, what members of the ____ _____ permit necessarily influences the ultimate selection of acculturation strategies.
represents an accommodative approach in which host nationals believe that immigrants are entitled to
preserve their heritage culture while simultaneously adopting aspects of the national culture; Those who endorse this strategy anticipate the gradual evolution of a multicultural
Host nationals who espouse (embrace) ______ believe it is in the best interest of the larger community to separate immigrant cultures from the mainstream society.
Host nationals who support_______ express a desire to see immigrants relinquish their heritage culture in
favor of the one from their adopted homeland.
______ reflects the belief that
immigration and immigrants are perilous to the national community and that the country
would benefit most from a closed, as opposed to an open, immigration policy.
preferred by those who believe that there is no one right way to manage identity issues as individuals should be empowered to adopt any strategy that they see fit.; A cultural orientation in which independence, autonomy, and self-reliance take priority over group allegiances
Germany's Acculturation strategy
integrative intentions---> increasing assimilation
Netherlands' Acculturation strategy
Though hostile and xenophobic---->reported as better than other European Union countries
Italy's Acculturation strategy
Canada's Acculturation strategy
traditionally melting pot----> practice assimilation
The United State's Acculturation strategy
Multiculturalism (since 1975)----->changes with unemployment rate----->higher preference for European immigrants than Asian and Middle Eastern Immigrants
Australia's Acculturation strategy
Integration more than assimilation and separation
New Zealand Acculturation strategy
_______ is needed between the host and migrant cultures because dissimilar attitudes result in problematic or conflictual
concordant acculturation preferences between the migrant and host cultures
The Contact hypothesis
the idea that prejudice is caused by unfamiliarity and can be reduced with contact that promotes interaction between two groups, doesn't always decrease prejudice though and sometimes contact leads to prejudice (ex desegregation);
Ex: , Working together as computer programmers for an electronics firm, a Hispanic woman and a Jewish man overcome that initial prejudices and come to appreciate each other's strengths and talents.
An effect which states that people tend to be attracted to those who are most like themselves; People tend to be more attracted to others who are perceived as more similar; people tend to avoid interacting with those who are perceived to be dissimilar to reduce the likelihood of having uncomfortable disagreements;, Wanting to percieve similarities in these areas values, religion, group affiliation, skills, physical attributes, age, language, occupation, social class, nationality, ethnicity, residential location, and most other aspects on which human beings differ. They also want to percieve similarities to themselves physically characteristics such as skin colour, accent, clothing, and other visible cues.
Social Identity Theory
A theory that a person's self-concept and self-esteem not only derive from personal identity and accomplishments, but from the status and accomplishments of the various groups to which the person belongs, People have the need to identify with a group and this creates factions that interact/conflict with one another;
Explains stereotype homogenization of outgroups. Explains group cohesion on divisive matters like welfare, immigration, affirmative action, etc.
Drawing on a range of theories that emphasize cognition, comparison, and conﬂict, ITT identiﬁes four types of threat that play a signiﬁcant role in precipitating prejudice: realistic threats, symbolic threats, intergroup anxiety, and negative stereotyping. Realistic threats include perceived threats to the welfare of a group or its members. Symbolic threats are associated with values, beliefs and attitudes and are perceived to undermine or jeopardize the worldview of a group. Intergroup anxiety constitutes threat as it arises in response to fears of diminished self- concept and negative evaluations by others. Finally, negative stereotypes contain elements of threat in that they lead to the anticipation of negative events and interactions.
Instrumental Model of Group Conflict
Inspired by realistic group conflict theory, the model identifies two conditions leading to intergroup antagonism.
The first is resource stress which may arise from limited resources, unequal access to
resources, and desire or acceptance of unequal access based on a social hierarchy. The last
of these three factors is regarded as an individual difference variable and is often discussed
under the rubric of Social Dominance Orientation. The second determinant of conflict is
the presence of a relevant outgroup. The outgroup should be salient, distinctive and a
viable competitor for valued resources. Salience and distinctiveness can be accentuated by
such things as the increasing numbers of outgroup members or by their distinguishable
appearance. The combination of resource stress and a relevant outgroup results in
intergroup competition and is accompanied by the cognitive and affective perception of
threat. The cognitive component revolves around a zero-sum belief system, where there is a
perception that any opportunities and benefits given to one group are regarded as directly
reducing the concomitant opportunities and benefits available to the others. The affective
component encompasses the perceptions of fear and anxiety as a result of the challenges
posed by outgroup competitors.
Common Ingroup Identity Model
The central idea of the model is that once a set of people is
defined as part of the ingroup, they will be treated in a similar way to other ingroup
members. Gaertner and Dovidio argue that by shifting cognitive representations of
membership in ingroups and outgroups to an inclusive social identity within a single
group, more favorable attitudes toward former outgroup members may be produced
through processes involving pro-ingroup bias. When members of a former outgroup come
to be considered part of the ingroup, the cognitive and motivational forces that contribute
to ingroup favoritism become redirected to improve attitudes toward the newly defined
members of the ingroup. Common ingroup identity can be achieved by increasing the
salience of existing common superordinate memberships (e.g., a school, a company, a
nation) or by introducing factors (e.g., common goals or shared fate) that are perceived to be shared between the original groups. The model does not necessarily require each group
to forsake its less inclusive group identity completely. Individuals belong simultaneously to
several groups and possess multiple identities. Research demonstrating that
national identity is linked to positive attitudes toward immigrants, such as Billiet,
Maddens, and Beerten's work in Belgium can be interpreted in terms of the theory
of Common Ingroup Identity.
broadly refers to multiple ties and interactions linking people or
institutions across the borders of nation-states;may reflect international linkages across multiple countries, in many instances the
term is used to refer to the process by which immigrants forge and sustain multistranded
social relations that link together their societies of origin and settlement;Examples are: money remittances, commercial ties between the country of origin
and the new country, intensive links with relatives and friends in the country of origin,
branches of religious organizations that are set up in the new country, second homes in the
country of origin, and mutual visits; facilitated by geographical
proximity and good telecommunication services; some also argue that is more likely to arise in conditions where immigrants form a considerable proportion of the nation, e.g.,
North Africans in Western Europe and Hispanics in the United States.
has provided immigrants with a wider range of alternatives for life in
their new country. It also affords greater opportunities for immigrants to distance
themselves from the host society when their identity is being threatened. Paradoxically, the
availability of several options to deal with the new society may make immigrants also feel
more at ease and more 'at home' in the new society;
As a consequence, host societies are
becoming increasingly culturally heterogeneous. These multicultural environments are
likely to lead to new acculturation strategies and outcomes. Two of these are creolization
BLENDING AND MIXING of African, European, and some Amerindian cultural elements into the unique sociocultural systems found in the Caribbean, in a linguistic context, the process describing the convergence of two or more languages, forming a separate, new language
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group., A state in which people of all races and ethnicities are distinct but have equal social standing
refers to the BLENDING AND MIXING of
two or more formerly discrete traditions or cultures. creolization occurs in many parts of the world, but there are large differences in the degree of mixing;
Examples: spontaneous forms of youth language (ethno-language) or music (for instance hip hop) in which elements from different ethnic groups are adopted,
or food preferences (for instance Cajun food) that have become fashionable among a larger public.
Such hybrid cultural phenomena are specially to be found among transnational youth whose primary socialization has taken place with the cross-currents of differing cultural fields
The ______ approach encourages both cultural maintenance and intergroup contact; however, the cultural mixing, which is seen in creolization, does not occur. Pluralism arises from the relationships amongst a number of different groups that together form a new nation (or community). Although there may be status differences among the groups, each represents an important component of societies where no clear majority group is apparent. Pluralism is distinct from the common understanding of integration, which tends to refer to a dyadic relation between a subgroup of immigrants and the host society largely defined by its culturally dominant group. Furthermore, we may assume that marginalisation and separation (including withdrawal into ethno-cultural enclaves) may occur in plural societies, but will do so relatively infrequently because these societies embrace cultural diversity
The issue of national identity in multicultural societies is important and should
receive greater attention in future research. Nations that support maintenance of cultural
heritage while at the same time promoting a superordinate national identity show high
levels of ethnic tolerance. ____ is a good example of this.
inclusive social identity
The Common Ingroup Identity model of Gaertner and colleagues who argue that intergroup
conflict can be diminished by interventions that shift cognitive representations of
membership in ingroups and outgroups to an __________ within a single
group. It is the acceptance of multiculturalism and
the evolution of a multifaceted, inclusive national identity that holds the promise for our
future in an era of increasing globalization.
research has shown that ethnic and national
identity are strong and positively correlated in the four major ethnic groups, that
Singaporeans typically refer to themselves in terms of a hyphenated identity (e.g.,
Singaporean-Chinese) and that stronger national identity is associated with more _____
True or False :New Zealand, Canada, and Australia endorse an integration acculturation strategy.
No (Germany endorses a clearly assimilation acculturation strategy)
True or False: Germany endorses an integration acculturation strategy.
False (Surprisingly multiculturalism is associated with higher host (national) identity among immigrants
True or False? Present data suggests that SUPPORT for multiculturalism is associated with LOWER (host) national identity among immigrants.
Honeymoon (Excitement) Phase of acculturation
You have just arrived and are ready for adventure. Everything is new and exciting, and you wish you had an eternity to live and learn in your new environment. Small differences in customs seem insignificant and you can see no potential problems; everything is new, meeting new people, practicing new language, other people are interested in you
*** 1st few months
*** travelers only experience this phase
Acculturation stress and shock (Withdrawal/Frustration ) Phase of acculturation
You have had some time to consider differences in culture and begin to criticize the customs and the people in your host country. You begin to allow small problems to control your overall experience and disassociate yourself from your new surroundings; novelty worn off, notice language limitations, know people but now friends yet, can be intense---> may decide to move back home
**Next several months-year
Adjustment Phase of acculturation
You begin to understand the culture and find more similarities between yourself and the people of your host country. You become less isolated and find ways to enjoy yourself again and look forward to new experiences, learning norms, attitudes better, found work, language skills improved, know way around, making friends
Acculturative stress does not only occur when moving to a new culture. An additional shock you may encounter is ____ shock. After spending significant time abroad, returning home can be difficult. Adjusting back to your old customs can seem tedious after your exciting time away. Although it is important to remember what you acquired abroad, it is equally important to remember why you loved your life before and find equilibrium between the two after you return.
refers to differences in cultural values, language, verbal styles, and so on between the host and home cultures; the greater this variable, the more severe the culture shock (the greater the acculturative stress), unless they expect very little cultural distance and are surprised.
proxy, language difference systems
A ____ is a measurement of one physical quantity that is used as an indicator for the value of another; for acculturation this would be _____ ___ _____ since those who transition into culture with very different language systems (such as English and Japanese) have more acculturally stressful transitions than those who adjust to cultures with more similar language systems ( Spanish and french)
When adjusting to a culture that is _____ to your home culture your acculturation stress phase would be attenuated.