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Darwin was inspired by these to think about evolution

Books, fossils, adaptations of organisms to the environment, and unique organisms on the Galapagos Islands

These create genetic variation

mutation and sexual recombination

Artificial Selection

Breeding of plants and animals by humans

Microorganisms can adapt to changes in the environment by means of mutation alone because

They multiply so rapidly

The smallest unit that can evolve


Differential reproduction is another way of saying

Natural Selection

What changes in a gene pool results in adaption to an envrionment

Natural Selection

The ultimate source of genetic variation is...


An organisms fitness is measured by its..

contribution to the gene pool of the next generation

Animals that possess homologous structures probably

evolved from the same ancestor

Two animals are considered different species if they...

cannot interbreed

What is the first step in allopatric speciation?

Geographic isolation


the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms

Why are species most commonly identified by their appearance?

This is the most convenient way of identifying species

A new species can arise in a single generation if

a change in chromosome number creates a reproductive barrier

Adaptive radiation

evolution from a common ancestor of many species adapted to diverse environments

Evolution occurs in spurts; species evolve relatively rapidly, then remain unchanged for long periods, according to what?

Punctuated equilibrium model

Sympatric speciation

the appearance of a new species in the same area as the parent population

Behavioral isolation

individuals of different species living in te same area may be prevented from interbreeding by responding to different mating dances

It is unlikely that the human opulation will give rise to a new species becaues

geographic isolation is unlikely to occur

What do the excretory, digestive, and respiratory systems have in common?

The contain specialized surfaces for exchange with the environment

A change in the body often triggers a response that counteracts the change. What is this known as?

Negative feedback


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment

An animals internal environment is...

the interstitial fluid that sorrounds the cells

What is the correct hierarchical order of tissue, organ, cell?


When you sprain your ankle, the "straps" of the tissue that hold the bones together are stretched and torn. What kind of tissue is damaged?

fibrous connective tissue

What forms a thick protective barrier that keeps bacteria out of the body?

stratifies squamous epithelium

The function of the large intestine, or colon

absorption of water

Basal metabolic rate

the energy needed o fuel essential body processes

Is this statement true or false-It is best to strive to have as little body fat as possible


Is glucose an essential nutrient?


Which of the following is not an essential nutrient-zinc, protein, vitamin c, calcium.

Vitamin C

_______ are needed in the diet as components of teeth and bone, regulators of acid-base and water balance, and parts of certain enzymes.


A decreased intake of saturated fats will improve/hurt your health


What type of feeder are wolves, humans, elephants, hummingbirds, and termites?

Ingestive Feeders

Would a carnivorous animal or an herbivorous animal be more likely to have a longer digestive tract?

The herbivorous animal

Does an earthworm have any specialized respiratory structures?


The location of respiratory control centers is...

The Brain

When you exhale, the diaphragm...

relaxes and arches

Why are bird lungs more efficient that human lungs

they have a one-way air flow system, rather than and in-out system


branch out from the bronchi and carry oxygen to the alveoli

An advantage of gas exchange in water as compared to water is...

the respiratory system will not dry out in water

In the blood, bicarbonate ions...

act as buffers to guard against PH changes

Smoking destroys the ___ in the respiratory passages.


Most oxygen is carried by the blood_____, most CO2 is carried by the blood_______.

attached to the form of bicarbonate ions.

What well known disease linked to smoking decreases the vital capacity of the lungs?


The _____ is the structure specialized for diffusion of gases and nutrients between the blood of the mother and the fetus.


Rhythmic stretcing of the arteries cause by heart contractions is...


Does a spider have an open or closed respiratory system?


Which of the following cannot move freely in and out of a capillary-sugar, O2, CO2, water, plasma proteins.

plasma proteins

Heart valves function to

keep blood moving forward through the heart

Put the following in the correct order that traces electric impulses that trigger a heartbeat-atria,ventricles,AV node,pacemaker.

pacemaker,atria,AV node, ventricles.

A heart attack occurs when

a coronary artery is blocked

White blood cells

diease fighting cells in blood

If cells are not receiving enough oxygen, a hormone signlsthe bone marrow to produce more


What carries blood away from the heart


Blood moves most slowly in


In a fish, blood circulates through____ circuits, while in a mammal, it circulates through ___ circuits.


When exercising, _________________ allows greater blood flow to the skeletal muscles.

relaxation of muscle in walls of arterioles

A mouse is an ectotherm/endotherm


What is the coorect route of urine from the kidney to outside the body-bladder, ureter, urethra

ureter, bladder, urethra

Blood flows throught the hepatci portal vessel from the ___ to the ___.

intestine ...liver

A countercurrent heat exchanger allows an animal to

reduce heat loss

An advantage of excreting uric acid is that it ____, but a disadvantage is that it____.

saves water....costs energy

The main function of the kidney is to

regulate the body fluid composition

What is the first process when the kidney receives blood


On a cold day, blood vessels _____, reducing heat loss from the surface.


Filtrate is refined and concentrated by the processes of _______, forming the urine that leaves the body.

re-absorption and secretion

Nitrogenous waste products are moade from by-products of the breakdown of


The ____ system works closely with the endocrine system to control body processes.


An incease in blood sugar triggers the release of


Every ____ acts as a signal between cells


Researchers have found increased levels of hormones from the ____ glands in the blood of students preparing for final exams. These hormones are released in response to stress.


Insulin and glucagon work together to regulate

blood sugar

What is the role of a receptor in hormone action?

to enable a target cell to respond to a hormone

A hormone from the parathyroid glands works in opposition to a hormone from the ____ to regulate___.

thyroid gland....blood calcium

How is the level of thyroxine in the blood regulated?

Thyroxine and TSH inhibit secretion of TRH

Steroid hormones are produced only by the...

sex organs and adrenal cortex

Action potential is basically

flow of electricity along a neuron

A dendriteis the part of the neuron that carries signals toward the ____

cell body

The left cerebral hemispher contains association areas for ____

speech, language, and calculation.

A stimulus triggers an action potential by causing ______

sodium ions to leak into the neuron

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