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American Imperialism and WWI USH Test
Terms in this set (42)
The US took an isolationist stance, in order to focus on building up the country and solving our own problems, rather than worrying about other country's problems.
What was the US stance on foreign affairs during the Gilded Age?
Progressives said it was America's destiny to uphold and spread liberty and freedoms, get involved abroad.
- Spanish-American war, "deliverance of freedom"
What was the US stance on foreign affairs coming out of the Gilded Age?
European leaders begin to give their countries a feeling of unity by emphasizing national identity and cultural heritage, which encourages a sense of belonging and pride
-Examples: In 1871, Italian (Garibaldi) and German (Wilhelm) unification are completed. By 1890, nationalism fuels strong competition in Europe
What is nationalism? (1880s-1910s)
-Cultural conservatism and xenophobia
-Irredentism (taking of culturally significant lands)
What were side effects of nationalism?
The belief that a country and its population are dependent upon the military for defense and economic and cultural expansion, military is idealized as a benevolent national symbol.
-Examples: Prussia and Germany (land), Great Britain (sea)
What is militarism?
Extending control or authority over foreign entities through territorial conquest or through control of the politicians and/or economy of other countries
-Examples: British in India, US in the Philippines
What is imperialism/colonialism?
It was most prevalent in Asia and Africa, because the Monroe Doctrine prohibited new colonization by European countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Where was imperialism most prevalent?
-Cuba wanted independence from Spain, so they revolted and Spain shut them down
-Yellow Journalism in the US portrayed these conflicts as bloody, inhuman, and a violation of civil rights on Spain's part
-USS Maine sunk by an explosive in Havana Harbor, and because of the war fervor in the US, the US government blamed the ship's destruction on Spain, where it was later found to be an accident
-The US ends up winning the war, Cuba gained independence, and the US got Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico
How was the Spanish-American war conflict manufactured?
Heavily based on a caste system from earlier slavery/sugar trade
What was the history of Cuba under Spanish control?
He had no desire to go to war with Spain
What were McKinley's thoughts on the Spanish and Cuban conflicts?
The nation wanted to free some new countries and gain international influence, so Congress and the public pushed McKinley to go to war with Spain
How did McKinley get pushed into war?
They were a safe stop between the US and China.
Why did the Philippines become and issue during the Spanish-American war?
The Chinese market had the allure of investment and sales opportunities, and other nations were closer and had easier access to China
-Sec. of State John Hay: Open Door Policy, all countries had equal rights to the Chinese market
-Europeans, Japan, and Russia were jealous of each other's spheres of influence
Why was the US interested in the Philippines?
How much political or economic influence a country had
What are Spheres of Influence?
The Chinese market had the allure of investment and sales opportunities, and other nations were closer and had easier access to China.
Why did the US and Europe want in to China?
All countries had equal rights to the Chinese market
What was the Open Door Policy?
1. Economic: wanted access to raw materials and markets around the world
2. Altruistic: Rudyard Kipling's "White Man's Burden," Taft's assertion that we were obligated to help our "little brown brothers," racism/social Darwinism
Justifications of American imperialism?
-1905: European nations owed debt payments from the Dominican Republic
-Roosevelt feared that Europe would use loan defaults as an excuse to reestablish presence in Latin America
-Not only were the nations of the Western Hemisphere not open to colonization by European powers, but that the US had the responsibility to preserve order and protect life and property in those countries.
-US used this to prevent further European expansion
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine (said what?)
1. Monroe Doctrine
2. Roosevelt Corollary
3. Big Stick Diplomacy
4. Gunboat Diplomacy
What was the order of significance of policy?
Roosevelt believed that the mere show of American might could compel foreign countries to go along with us
Big Stick Diplomacy
Panama Canal, showing up with gunboats full of money, says you can either take the money and go home, or you can fight us and our super cool looking gunboats
-Used to connect East and West fleets, Roosevelt wanted to build a canal through the isthmus of Panama
-It would connect east and west fleets, making it easier for the US to be an international power.
What was the Panama Canal and why was it important?
-US purchased land from a French company
-Petitioned the Columbian government for permanent rights, they say no
-The Panamanians rebel, the US supports them by sending gunboats with bags of money to the Columbians and says you can either fight us or take the money and go home
-Panama gained independence, and because we supported them, they let the US build the canal
How did the US build the Panama Canal?
Taft Administration uses investment as leverage against Latin America
-Taft and Secretary of State Knox: Investment in developing countries could tie them to the US
These countries are not good places to invest money, these are not business-savvy decisions.
Why was Dollar Diplomacy unsuccessful?
Leads to colonial and economic rivalry between powers
How did imperialism play a role in WWI?
Many ethnic groups (such as the Balkans) wanted independence.
-Nationals favor Balkan independence; opposed to Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand's Triple Monarchy plan, so Serbian national Gavrilo Princip assassinated Ferdinand.
How did nationalism play a role in WWI?
Nations had assembled massive military forces; were primed to fight
How did militarism play a role in WWI?
There were webs of alliances between various countries, which caused countries to jump into the war even though it did not directly affect them.
Why did the scope of WWI expand so rapidly?
Wilson urges people not to take sides in thought or action. He doesn't want anything to turn the public against him or against the new immigrants from Europe.
Why did Wilson wish to remain neutral?
The US was never really neutral in anything, as they were biased towards the French and British allies due to:
-economic ties ($2.25 billion in loans by 1917)
Why should neutrality be considered a myth?
-The Zimmerman Note: Correspondence between Germany and Mexico suggested an Alliance between Germany and Mexico. The US intercepted this and got mad
-Unrestricted Submarine warfare: US gets mad, Germans keep doing anyway
What drew the US into war?
To what degree did the US help end WWI?
Allies were able to outlast due rather than defeat, US backup helped
Why were the allies eventually victorious?
June 1919: Treaty of Versailles signed by all sides, with stipulations for Germany, which were:
-accept full responsibility for the war
-pay $33 billion in reparations
-cede some territory and abandon colonies
What document dictated reparations for the war?
Germany goes into economic turmoil, and needs someone to blame, which sets up WWII
What happened to the losers of WWI? (Germany)
Austrian-Hungarians Habsburg Empire breaks apart, some land going to Italy and Romania, the rest is formed into new countries.
What happened to the losers of WWI? (Austria-Hungary)
Ottoman Empire is divided up; Middle East is under French and British control.
What happened to the losers of WWI? (Ottoman Empire)
A League of Nations (Wilson's Idea) is formed to prevent and mediate future conflicts.
-Dec 1918: Wilson goes to Paris Peace Conference
-Gives US a foot in the door in the global state of diplomacy
League of Nations
-TE Lawrence was a British archaeological scholar, military strategist, and author best known for his war activities in the Middle East during WWI
-He worked with the British and Arabs until the Sykes Picot agreement
-He tried to help the Arabs gain independence and their land, but Sykes-Picot agreement destroyed it
TE Lawrence and the Middle East
The 1916 secret agreement between Britain and France that divided up the Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, Southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq. This pretty much destroyed the Middle East and led to numerous conflicts still going on today.
- Arabs live in the Middle East, but Turks control it. Arabs don't like this. McMahon goes to Arab leader (Hussein) and promises to back them for their fight for Arab freedom in exchange for land.
- TE Lawrence goes to Middle East to help fight for freedom
- In secret, the Sykes Picot Agreement is finalized and the Middle East is split up regardless of religious or ethnic groups.
- Middle East breaks, still broken today.
How did past events contribute to the Middle East today?
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