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37 terms

Biology Cathedral Prep Final

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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What three elements are found in carbohydrates?
1:2:1
What ratio are the three elements in carbohydrates in?
The raw fuel for cellular energy production
What do carbohydrates provide to cells?
Molecular size, and solubility
Carbohydrates are classified according to these two criteria.
More
Small carbohydrates are MORE or LESS soluble than larger ones.
A single unit of sugar
What is a monosaccharide?
Glucose- in our blood, Fructose- in fruit, Galactose- in milk
Identify 3 examples of monosaccharides and what the sugar is found in.
Isomer
Same composition, but different arrangement of their atoms and the different properties
Disachharide
2 momosaccharides, the are joined together by dehydration synthesis to form a molecule
Sucrose- table sugar, Lactose- milk sugar, Maltose- malt sugar
List 3 examples of disaccharides and what the sugar is found in.
Polysaccharide
Long chain-like polymers that make ideal storage products due to their insolubility
Starch- plants, Cellulose- peristalsis, Glycogen- muscle
List 3 examples of polysaccharides and where they are found.
Lipids
Organic molecules that are insoluble in water
Neutral fats, Phospholipids, Cholesterol
What are three examples of lipids?
Triglyceride, Fatty acid, Fatty acid, Fatty acid
What 4 molecules make up a lipid?
Stores energy, Insulates body, Cushions organs
What are 3 funtions of lipids?
Have single bonds between carbon atoms, Originate from animal sources, Are solid at room temperature
Describe 3 features of saturated fatty acids.
Double bonds between carbon atoms in the chain, Originate from plants, Liquid at room temperature
What are 3 featuresof unsaturated fatty acids?
Cholesterol
What is the chief component of cell membranes?
Helps to stabilize all animal cell membranes, and synthesize steroid hormones such as sex hormones and adrenal cortex
What does cholesterol do in the cell membrane?
One was vegetarian exclusively, was taller and heavier.The other one, Australopithecus, was an omnivorous animal. He existed at the same time period, but was smaller and of slighter build.
Primitive man emerged in two forms. List and explain them.
His liver continued to synthesize cholesterol for normal body metabolism
Man emerged a meat eater and cholesterol became a vital part of his chemical makeup. What happened during lean periods of hunting and starvation?
Cholesterol
A waxy, white, fat-like substance and an essential body chemical. It is made in the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
100mg. per 100ml.
List the normal levels of cholesterol and blood sugar found in 100ml of blood?
Brain
Where is the highest concentration of pure, free cholesterol found?
Small intestine, Testicles, Kidney, and Skin.
If the liver were removed or malfunctioning where else can cholesterol be made?
800- 1,000 mg
How many mg of cholesterol does the average American consume in a day?
Atherosclerosis
Related to cholesterol and the buildup of cholesterol-containing plaque in the arteries.
Atheriosclerosis
The artery clogged with metabolic debris including cholesterol, calcium and other garbage including heavy metals such as lead and mercury.
Fats, Sodium, Cholesterol
List 3 items we should reduce in our diets.
Fiber, Carbohydrates
List 2 items we should increase in our diets.
Predators, Natural accidents, Infectious diseases
List 3 causes of death for Paleolithic primitives.
Vegetarian
What was a typical Paleolithic diet 2 million years ago?
Coproliths
Fossilized fecal remains
Australopithecines
Where did our "taste" for sweets originate?
Weighs 1/40 of the body weight and is fueled by glucose
How much does does the human brain weigh and what is it fueled by?
There is a constant food supply?
Why might people be prone to weight gain today?