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Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

What three elements are found in carbohydrates?


What ratio are the three elements in carbohydrates in?

The raw fuel for cellular energy production

What do carbohydrates provide to cells?

Molecular size, and solubility

Carbohydrates are classified according to these two criteria.


Small carbohydrates are MORE or LESS soluble than larger ones.

A single unit of sugar

What is a monosaccharide?

Glucose- in our blood, Fructose- in fruit, Galactose- in milk

Identify 3 examples of monosaccharides and what the sugar is found in.


Same composition, but different arrangement of their atoms and the different properties


2 momosaccharides, the are joined together by dehydration synthesis to form a molecule

Sucrose- table sugar, Lactose- milk sugar, Maltose- malt sugar

List 3 examples of disaccharides and what the sugar is found in.


Long chain-like polymers that make ideal storage products due to their insolubility

Starch- plants, Cellulose- peristalsis, Glycogen- muscle

List 3 examples of polysaccharides and where they are found.


Organic molecules that are insoluble in water

Neutral fats, Phospholipids, Cholesterol

What are three examples of lipids?

Triglyceride, Fatty acid, Fatty acid, Fatty acid

What 4 molecules make up a lipid?

Stores energy, Insulates body, Cushions organs

What are 3 funtions of lipids?

Have single bonds between carbon atoms, Originate from animal sources, Are solid at room temperature

Describe 3 features of saturated fatty acids.

Double bonds between carbon atoms in the chain, Originate from plants, Liquid at room temperature

What are 3 featuresof unsaturated fatty acids?


What is the chief component of cell membranes?

Helps to stabilize all animal cell membranes, and synthesize steroid hormones such as sex hormones and adrenal cortex

What does cholesterol do in the cell membrane?

One was vegetarian exclusively, was taller and heavier.The other one, Australopithecus, was an omnivorous animal. He existed at the same time period, but was smaller and of slighter build.

Primitive man emerged in two forms. List and explain them.

His liver continued to synthesize cholesterol for normal body metabolism

Man emerged a meat eater and cholesterol became a vital part of his chemical makeup. What happened during lean periods of hunting and starvation?


A waxy, white, fat-like substance and an essential body chemical. It is made in the liver and gastrointestinal tract.

100mg. per 100ml.

List the normal levels of cholesterol and blood sugar found in 100ml of blood?


Where is the highest concentration of pure, free cholesterol found?

Small intestine, Testicles, Kidney, and Skin.

If the liver were removed or malfunctioning where else can cholesterol be made?

800- 1,000 mg

How many mg of cholesterol does the average American consume in a day?


Related to cholesterol and the buildup of cholesterol-containing plaque in the arteries.


The artery clogged with metabolic debris including cholesterol, calcium and other garbage including heavy metals such as lead and mercury.

Fats, Sodium, Cholesterol

List 3 items we should reduce in our diets.

Fiber, Carbohydrates

List 2 items we should increase in our diets.

Predators, Natural accidents, Infectious diseases

List 3 causes of death for Paleolithic primitives.


What was a typical Paleolithic diet 2 million years ago?


Fossilized fecal remains


Where did our "taste" for sweets originate?

Weighs 1/40 of the body weight and is fueled by glucose

How much does does the human brain weigh and what is it fueled by?

There is a constant food supply?

Why might people be prone to weight gain today?

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