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Musculoskeletal System Part 2
Anatomy Exam 3
Terms in this set (52)
formed from 26 bones (vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx) and is held in place by ligaments. Each vertebrae is separated from one another by intervertebral discs
Major Regions of Vertebral Column
o Cervical vertebrae- 7; found in the neck region
o Thoracic vertebrae- 12; found in the thoracic region
o Lumbar vertebrae- 5; found in the lower back
o Sacral vertebrae- 5 fused vertebrae; found in the lower torso
o Coccygeal vertebrae- 3 to 5 fused vertebrae; the tail bone
Functions of Vertebral Column
o Transmits weight of trunk to legs
o Surrounds and protects spinal cord
o Serves as attachment sites for muscles of the neck and back
o Articulates with the ribs
what movements is the vertebral column capable of?
flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation
what is whiplash?
Injuries to the neck caused by sudden trauma or distortion (usually extension) of the neck that is most often injures the spinal cord or spinal nerves. Common in car accidents but also occurs as a consequence of falling or amusement rides.
List and describe the types of normal spine curvature
• Cervical- concaved posteriorly
• Thoracic- convexed posteriorly
• Lumbar- concaved posteriorly
• Sacral curvatures- convexed posteriorly
• Many become accentuated with age
cushion like pads between vertebrae that act as shock absorbers.
o Comprise about 25% of height of vertebral column
o Consists of 70-80% water and thus lose fluid during the day because of compression from being upright. The water content of the intervertebral discs decreases with age and the discs become stiffer and more susceptible to developing ruptures.
the genatinous inner sphere of intervertebral disc. Enables spine to absorb compressive stresses
an outer collar (rings) of ligaments and fibrocartilage surrounding the nucleus pulposus. Functions to bind vertebrae together, resist tension on the spine, and hold the nucleus pulposus in so the disk can resist compression
removal of much of the vertebral arch at the level of the herniation in order to relieve pressure
typical causes of back pain
compression of the spinal cord or spinal nerves causing pain, loss of sensation, and/or paralysis.
o E.g. herniated intervertebral disc, osteoporosis, or trauma to the spine
hernia intervertebral disc
Nucleus pulposus loses cushioning properties; Rupture of the anulus fibrosis and protrusion of nucleus pulposus.
anterior longitudinal ligament
vertebral column ligament; attaches to bony vertebrae and intervertebral discs. Prevents hyperextension.
posterior longitudinal ligament
vertebral column ligament; running from occipital bone to sacrum. They are narrow and relatively weak. Attach to intervertebral discs.
vertebral column ligament; yellow-color elastic ligament that connects adjacent laminae.
vertebral column ligament; found connecting spinous processes of vertebrae.
vertebral column ligament; strong outer ligament interconnecting the tips of vertebral spinous processes.
vertebral column ligament; large ligament connecting occipital bone of skull to several cervical spinous processes
an abnormal lateral curvature
an exaggerated thoracic curvature; often seen with osteoporosis
an accentuated lumbar curvature; associated with weakened abdominal muscles
Structure of a typical vertebrae
• Body- ventral (anterior) central portion
• Vertebral arch- dorsal (posterior) arching portion that serves like a roof over the spinal canal
• Pedicles- segments connecting the vertebral body to the vertebral arch
• Vertebral foramen- space that contains the spinal cord
• Spinous process- posterior bony processes extending out from the base of both ends of the vertebral arch
• Laminae- portion of the vertebral arch between the spinous and transverse processes
• Articular processes- found on the superior and inferior surface of the pedicles. Form moveable joints between the vertebrae
• Intervertebral foramen- space formed between superior and inferior pedicles that serve as exit holes for the spinal nerves
unique to cervical vertebrae
lateral bony processes extending out from the base of both ends of the vertebral arch.
supports the skull; lacks a body and spinous processes; important for flexion & extension & for nodding the head "yes"; C1
had body and spinous processes; functions in rotating the head from side to side "no"' C2
articulate with ribs; found in thoracic vertebrae
formed from 5 fused vertebrae; shapes the posterior wall of pelvis
formed from 3-5 fused vertebrae. Also known as the tailbone; very painful if broken
forms the framework of the chest. Includes the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and costal cartilages
Functions of Bony Thorax
o To protect the thoracic organs
o To support the shoulder girdle and upper limbs
o As attachment sites for muscles
Parts of the sternum
manubrium, body, xiphoid process, jugular notch, sternal angle
articulates with clavicle and for the first pair of ribs
Body (of the sternum)
bulk of sternum; sides are notched as articulations for costal cartilage of ribs 2-7
inferior end of sternum. Completely ossified by age 40
central indentation at superior border of the manubrium. This landmark together with the clavicle is used guide running catheters.
a horizonatal ridge where the manubrium joins the body.
attaches directly to sternum by costal cartilage
Structure of a typical rib
o Shaft (body)- main portion
o Head- articulates with vertebral bodies by way of the superior and inferior pedicle facets
o Neck- between the head and body and is slightly narrower
o Tubercle- short enlargement adjacent the neck that on its posterior side articulates with the transverse process of the vertebra of the same rib number
o Costal groove- where intercostal vessels and nerves run
the superior 7 pairs; attach directly to sternum by costal cartilage
ribs 8 to 10; attach to sternum indirectly via the costal cartilage of the 7th rib
ribs 11 and 12; has no sternal attachment
Typical Head Movements
Flexion and rotation
-Anterior neck muscles
- Posterior neck muscles
Splenius muscles (splenius capitis and splenius cervicis)
What muscles move the vertebral column (extend the trunk)?
erector spinae group
What muscles are involved in breathing?
• External intercostal muscles- helps lift the ribcage
• Internal intercostal muscles- aid in expiration
• Innermost intercostal muscles- aid the internal intercostal muscles
Muscles of the abdominal wall
o External abdominal oblique muscles
o Internal abdominal oblique muscles
o Transversus abdominis muscles
o Rectus abdominis muscles- pair strap muscles that run vertically
Functions of the muscles of the abdominal wall
o Support and protect abdominal viscera
o Movement of vertebral column
o Contract during urination, defecation, vomiting, childbirth, sneezing, coughing, laughing, screaming, and nose blowing.
combine to form a sheath that surrounds the rectus abdominis muscles before joining to form the linea alba.
a single tendinous band extending from the xipoid process to the symphysis pubis
Openings in the diaphragm
o Inferior caval vein
o Esophagus (opening called the esophageal hiatus)
o Descending aorta (opening called the aortic hiatus)
abnormal protrusion of abdominal contents out of the abdominal cavity
Types of abdominal hernias
o Inguinal hernia- direct and indirect
o Femoral hernia- at site where external iliac artery and vein exit to form the femoral artery and vein
o Umbilical hernia- where the umbilical cord exited (at the belly button)
o Hiatal hernia- where the esophagus passes through the diaphragm
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