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PSY 411 test 2
Terms in this set (100)
The Psychological Science of racial bias and policing is written by who?
Phillip Atiba Goff
What did the article by Swencionis and Atiba Goff discuss?
the science of social psychology and it's affect on policing due to discretion.
According to Swencionis and Atiba Goff was is a common problem in policing?
Discretion which includes not just decisions but also who they engage with and when
What can lead to a higher likelihood of discriminatory behavior according to Swencionis and Atiba Goff?
social dominance orientation
- measures individuals' support for hierarchies that discriminate against members of lower social strata
SDO is greater in who compared with who? - Jillian K Swencionis and Phillip Atiba Goff
greater in police then in general public
- individuals with higher SDO choose to go into policing
- related to levels of experience
Who has a higher risk of engaging in discriminatory behaviors? - Jillian K Swencionis and Phillip Atiba Goff
- Aversive racism also predicts discrimination in outcomes like hiring and college admission decisions
What are the 5 experiences common in policing? - Swencionis and Phillip Atiba Goff
2. being a novice
3. crime focus
4. cognitive demand
5. identity threats
In a small study during the Jillian K Swencionis and Phillip Atiba Goff article what happened around "being a novice?"
when primed with images of a black man compared to a white man they are more likely to mistake objects as guns
- racial bias in shooting errors
What does cognitive demand prompt? - Swencionis and Phillip Atiba Goff
reliance on cognitive shortcuts such as stereotypes
- resource depletion is associated with increased reliance on stereotypes
refers to a social stimulus that causes an individual to feel concern that their value as, status of, or membership in an important social category may be reduced
is a concern with being evaluated in terms of or confirming a negative stereotype about one's group
describes a tendency for some men to reassert their masculine self-concept in the face of real or imagined challenges to one's standing as positively masculine
- The Psychological Science of racial bias and policing
- The Psychological Science of racial bias and policing Swencionis
and Atiba Goff
Implicit Association Test
- Swencionis and Atiba Goff
Austin Police Department
biases that are built into society
social identity theory
theory in which the formation of a person's identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
To preserve self esteem we need to what?
According to the lecture, white people prereleases what racial dialogues?
Structured racial dialogues
- stay engaged
- speak your truth
- expecting and accepting noclsoure
Dred Scott Decision
Emancipation Proclamation in US
13th Amendment abolishes slavery
14th Amendment grants citizenship to those born or naturalized in the US (equal protection_
15th amendment (voting rights)
Hayes is elected president, the north would pull out of the south so the reconstruction ends, Jim Crow era begins
Plessy v. Ferguson ("separate but equal")
Wilson desegregated the government
Jim Crow Era
an era in the South where laws are made segregating African Americans
New Deal/ Original Social Security Act
Allowed states to determine the eligibility and only suitable homes
Edward Alsworth Ross
used statistics and sociological examination to argue that immigrants fail to mesh with America because of their cultural values. Thought immigrants were diminishing American culture and society.
Someone who studies improving the quality of the human species
Who wrote Bilingualism is associated with less racial bias in preschool children?
Leher Singh, Paul Quinn, Miao Qian, and Kang Lee
- Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee
a social experience that diversifies the range of linguistic, social, and cultural experiences available to a child.
Bilingual children may what according to Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee?
may interpret the actions of others from a "race-neutral" stance.
What study happened in Bilingualism is associated with less racial bias in preschool children?
compared bilingual children to monolingual children
- determine wether bilingualism is associated with lower levels of implicit and explicit racial bias
analysis of variance
What were parents of each child administered during the Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee bilingualism article?
Language Exposure Questionnaire
- talked about the children's language learning environment
Summarize the Bilingualism article by Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee?
Monolingual children and bilingual children were tested on their implicit and explicit views. press a frowning face when a black face came up and smiling face when a Chinese face appeared .
- bias scores were greater in monolingual children
According to the Bilingualism article by Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee what was suggested with the expression of explicit bias?
expression of explicit bias may be more dependent on sociocultural factors than on language experience
What was most apparent in the implicit bias task in Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee bilingualism study?
associations between racial bias and bilingualism were most apparent
What are three possibilities that may link bilingualism to social cognition?
- Singh, Quinn, Qian, and Lee Bilingualism study
- bilingualism may enhance socially relevant aspects of development that then influence later expression of bias.
- bilingual experience increases cognitive flexibility.
- bilingualism modifies a child's reasoning about the attributes of others in a way that influences the expression of bias.
associated with less implicit racial bias
- bilingual children staple two different languages and two different cultures
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an "Indian Territory" where they would be "permanently" housed.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
law that suspended Chinese immigration into America. The ban was supposed to last 10 years, but it was expanded several times and was essentially in effect until WWII.
The Immigration act of 1924
supremacy of white, Northern Europeans
the belief that one type of skin tone is superior or inferior to another within a racial group
What is the average student debt?
- Median white family had $171,000
- Median black family had $18,000
What was the systemic racism in real estate?
- white only zoning
- rule unconstitutional in 1968
What did HOLC and FHA mortgage do?
Discriminated against african americans and anyone who lived near them
- redlining outlawed in 1968
HOLC maps did what?
- relined neighborhoods
- restrictive convenant" older homes have a document saying a person of color couldn't live there
1949 Housing Act
the rich wanted to get rid of the slums in the city and move the ppl to public housing, didn't work b/c people were moving to the suburbs.
prejudicial statements defended as "just a joke"
- creates hostile environment and stereoptye
According to Blackburn, Greg and Erica Dcharrer Both men and women players with violent favorite video games are likely to?
endorse a view of masculinity that includes aggression, dominance, toughness, and the suppression of emotions.
Video game playing and beliefs about masculinity among male and female emerging adults was written by who?
Blackburn, Greg and Erica Dcharrer
idea that long-term immersion in a media environment leads to "cultivation," or enculturation, into shared beliefs about the world
- Video game playing and beliefs about masculinity among male and female emerging adults
What percent of U.S households own a device to play video games?
Those who played the violent-sexist game scored higher on a post-test measure of beliefs in traditional masculine norms as measured by a selection of items from the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised
Video game playing and beliefs about masculinity among male and female emerging adults by Blackburn, Greg and Erica Dcharrer
What does the Masculine Roles Norms Inventory-Revised measure?
- Avoidance of Feminity, - Negativity Toward Sexual Minorities,
- Importance of Sex,
- Restrctive Emtoionality, and - Self Reliance
Auburn Differential Masculinity Index's
- agression and dominance sub scale by Blackburn, Greg and Erica Dcharrer
What correlated with time spent playing violent video games according to Blackburn, Greg and Erica Dcharrer?
Aggression, Toughness, and Restrictive Emotionality
Reducing endorsement of benevolent and modern sexist beliefs: Differential effects of addressing harm verus pervasiveness of benevolent sexism was written by who?
Becker, Julia and Swim, Janet
How can benevolent sexism be harmful for women?
Legitimizes and maintains inequality and
assimilate to associated stereotypical views
According to Becker and Swim benevolent sexism must be characterized as what?
both harmful and pervasive
- those informed about the pervasiveness of benevolent sexism had lower scores on the Modern Sexism scale,
- Once individuals learned about the harmful aspects of benevolent sexism, they started to reject it
Self deceptive enhancement
a tendency to perceive reality in an optimistically distorted way to protect self-esteem
a strategy used to intentionally deceive a person in order to appear in a positive light
What did Becker and Swim discover in their benevolent and sexism article?
the information that benevolent sexism is pervasive and harmful increased respondents' tendency to evaluate the modern sexist dating profile as less favorable and as more sexist
What happened if benevolent sexism was characterized as harmful but not particularly pervasive according to Becker and swim?
it did not affect individual's general beliefs regarding discrimination in society,
human rights case
good and fair to the individual
grows the human condition
how gender was portrayed in the media
- men in workplace, women in home
- women are underrepresented in TV
Cultivation in video games
- gender bias
patient controlled analgesia
- Reduces stress because the patient has perceived control
language shapes the way we view reality
ways in which language devalues members of one sex (female vs male)
The word men came before the word women 94% of the time
acceptance of positive stereotypes of males and females that leads to unequal treatment
- viewing women in stereotyped and restricted roles, though the tone seems positive
What happened in the Mrs. Hamilition study?
more likely addressed as Ms/Mrs and not Dr
Can heterosexist music cause hiring discrimination against sexual minority men? Testing the effects of prejudicial media messages was written by who?
Binder, Kevin and Ward, Monique
What happened in the heterosexist music study by Binder and Ward?
participants exposed to heterosexist messages were less willing to recommend and meet one-on-one with a gay candidate than a heterosexual one
- found that heterosexual men were more likely than heterosexual women to hold negative attitudes toward LGBTQ individuals, and they held more negative attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbian women
What does the cultivation theory in the heterosexist music study by Binder and Ward argue?
t frequent exposure to consistent media themes, such as heterosexism, can cause media consumers to adopt attitudes contained in these messages
- LGBQT hate or acceptance
- found that participants in the heterosexist music condition judged the gay male candidate's qualifications as significantly less suitable as a math professor
What profession was being examine in the Binder and Ward study?
- ratings for the gay candidate were lowest for the heterosexist music condition
- exposure to heterosexist rap music remained a significant predictor of men's perceptions of a gay male candidate's qualifications and their willingness to attend his office hours.
psychology sense of self
- DSM in 2005
- Incongruence between the experienced gender and the assigned gender for at least 6 months
- causes distress or impairment
Keria Bell case
England result in young people no longer being able to get gender dysphoria surgery because there is not empirical support
- Court doubted that young people under the age of 16 can not give an informed consent to a gender surgery without a judge's decision
How many countries criminalize homosexuality?
Well-being and suicidality among transgender youth after gender-affirming hormones. by Allen, Watson, Egan, and Moser
those who had GAH because they experienced GD had an increased well being and reduction in anger and anxiety
genetically assigned hormones
- in the Well-being and suicidality among transgender youth after gender-affirming hormones. by Allen, Watson, Egan, and Moser study
The general well being scale
- suicidality scores were significantly lower at T1 after GAH treatment
- Our findings demonstrate that levels of suicidality decrease, whereas general well-being increases, among adolescents diagnosed with GD after receiving GAH
Perceived weight discrimination mediates the prospective relation between obesity and depressive symptoms in U.S. and U.K. adults by Robinson, Eric / Sutin, Angelina / Daly, Michael
- depression is associated with future weight gain
- The numbers of participants experiencing weight discrimination increased as BMI increased.
- An examination of the effect ratios indicated that perceived weight discrimination explained over 31% of the total effect of obesity on depressive symptoms
Trying to do my best as a mother: Decision-making in families of children undergoing elective surgical treatment for short stature. By Daniel, Emma / Kent, Gerry / Binney, Val / Pagdin
- parental anxiety, expected quality of life, and respect for their child's views are important considerations
- Explore mothers viewpoints, the process of decision making, and compare these finding to existing theories
A form of human dwarfism caused by a single dominant allele; the homozygous condition is lethal
- mother decision making by Daniel, Kent, Binney, and Pagdin
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
5 themes in the mother decision making article by Daniel, Kent, Binney, and Pagdin
1. Hes big. Hes big inside. Just because he is small does not mean he does not have a personality or can't do things
2. It's like a see saw: the process from surgery is long and thoughtful
3. It's up to her but: their body
4. this is what you'll be like: understand the short and long term effect of treatment
5. We can see things they can't see themselves" the treatment was for the right reasons
prejudice based upon looks/appearance
explains when I decide to engage in a behavior, once I engage in the behavior I tend to believe it was the right thing to do
- preserve self esteem,
causes of obesity
Bio: rule out metabolic problems and ensure good nutrition
Psycho: rule out depression, eating disorder, reinforce an active lifestyle
Social: show the child multiple social outlets, build social skills, build activity skills, and reinforce a balanced lifestyle
Adults BMI of 30 or higher, Children BMI at 95+ percentile for sex and age
children had to identify their body type and over weight children tended to underestimate their body size
Bucchianeri, Eisenbery, and Neumark-Sztainer
Over weight and obese adolescents reported disproportionally higher rates related to harassment
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