Terms in this set (22)
A client in renal failure is to have a serum blood urea nitrogen level determined. What will this diagnostic test measure?
a. Concentration of urine osmolarity and electrolytes
b. Serum level of the end products of protein
c. Ability of kidneys to concentrate urine
d. Levels of C-reactive protein to determine inflammation
Urea is an end product of protein metabolism. In renal failure, the kidneys cannot clear all of the urea from the blood, and the creatinine and BUN level will be elevated. The C-reactive protein is a diagnostic test used in assessing clients with inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases, and PID. A specific gravity test of the urine would assess the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. The urine osmolarity (concentration of particles in urine) and electrolytes assess fluid balance. The kidneys play an important role in the balance of electrolytes and fluids.
A client with chronic renal failure has an internal venous access site for hemodialysis on her left forearm. What action will the nurse take to protect this access site?
a. Irrigate with heparin and NS q8 hrs
b. Apply warm moist packs to the area after hemodialysis
c. Do not use the left arm to take blood pressure readings.
d. Keep the arm elevated above the level of the heart.
Protect the arm with the functioning shunt. No blood pressure readings should be taken from that arm, and there should be no needle sticks. The access is not irrigated with Heparin.
What nursing measure would be included in the plan of care for a client with acute renal failure?
a. Observe for signs of a secondary infection
b. Provide a high protein, low carbohydrate diet
c. In and out catheterization for residual urine
d. Encourage fluids to 2000 mL in 24 hours
Secondary infections are the cause of death in 50-90% of clients with acute renal failure. A low protein diet is most often offered. Catheterizations are avoided. Fluids may be limited if the client is in ARF.
A cllient with chronic renal failure has been prescribed calcium carbonate. What is the rationale for this particular medication?
a. Diminishes incidence of gastric ulcer formation
b. Alleviates constipation
c. Binds with phosphorus to lower concentration
d. Increase tubular reabsorption of sodium
Clients with ARF have hyperphosphatemia. Clients are prescribed calcium-based phosphate binders to improve excretion of phosphorus.
A client with acute renal failure develops sever hyperkalemia. What would the nurse anticipate to be used to treat this imbalance?
a. Furosemide (Lasix)
b. Amphojel (aluminum hydroxide)
c. 50% glucose and regular insulin
d. Epoetin (Procrit)
Hyperkalemia can develop into an emergency situation (Cardia Arrest). It is important to quickly move the potassium back into the cells by administering 50% glucose and regular insulin, usually in conjunction with some type of base to correct the acidosis, such as sodium bicarbonate or calcium gluconate given IV. Insulin assists in the movement of potassium into the cells and helps to reduce the serum potassium level. Amphojel is used for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia that occurs with ARF. Procrit is used for the treatment of anemia caused by a decrease in erythropoietin production by the kidneys. A diuretic, such as Lasix, may lead to a loss of potassium, but the rate is too slow.
A patient admitted with severe dehydration has a urine output of 380 ml over the next 24 hours and elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. A finding that the nurse would expect when reviewing the patient's urinalysis is
c. high specific gravity.
d. tubular casts.
Rationale: The patient's renal failure has been caused by the prerenal problem of hypovolemia. Prerenal oliguria is characterized by the ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine, resulting in a high urine specific gravity. The urinalysis in intrarenal failure would show proteins and tubular casts. Bacteriuria would be typical of a urinary tract infection (UTI), not renal failure.
A patient with acute renal failure (ARF) has an arterial blood pH of 7.30. The nurse will assess the patient for
b. rapid respirations.
c. poor skin turgor.
Rationale: Patients with metabolic acidosis caused by ARF may have Kussmaul respirations as the lungs try to regulate carbon dioxide. Tachycardia and vasodilation are not associated with metabolic acidosis. Because the patient is likely to have fluid retention, poor skin turgor would not be a finding in ARF.
A patient with severe heart failure develops elevated BUN and creatinine levels. The nurse plans care for the patient based on the knowledge that collaborative care of the patient will be directed toward the goal of
a. preventing hypertension.
b. replacing fluid volume.
c. diluting nephrotoxic substances.
d. maintaining cardiac output.
Rationale: The primary goal of treatment for ARF is to eliminate the cause and provide supportive care while the kidneys recover. Because this patient's heart failure is causing ARF, the care will be directed toward treatment of the heart failure. For renal failure caused by hypertension, hypovolemia, or nephrotoxins, the other responses would be correct.
A patient admitted with sepsis has had several episodes of severe hypotension. Laboratory results indicate a BUN 50 mg/dl (10.7 mmol/L), serum creatinine 2.0 mg/dl (177 µmol/L), urine sodium 70 mEq/L (70 mmol/L), urine specific gravity 1.010, and cellular casts and debris in the urine. The nurse knows these findings are consistent with
a. chronic renal insufficiency.
b. prerenal failure.
c. postrenal failure.
d. acute tubular necrosis.
Rationale: The specific gravity and presence of casts and debris in the urinalysis suggest intrarenal failure and acute tubular necrosis. The sudden onset indicates that the renal failure is acute, not chronic. In prerenal failure, there would not be casts or debris in the urine. The patient does not have risk factors for postrenal failure.
A patient in the oliguric phase of acute renal failure has a 24-hour fluid output of 150 ml emesis and 250 ml urine. The nurse plans a fluid replacement for the following day of ___ ml.
Rationale: Usually fluid replacement should be based on the patient's measured output plus 600 ml/day for insensible losses.
The health care provider orders IV glucose and insulin to be given to a patient in ARF whose serum potassium level is 6.3 mEq/L. To best evaluate the effectiveness of the medications, the nurse will
a. monitor the patient's electrocardiograph (ECG).
b. check the blood glucose level.
c. obtain serum potassium levels.
d. assess BUN and creatinine levels.
Rationale: Changes in potassium will impact on the ECG and muscle strength, but the nurse should expect to recheck the serum potassium level during the infusion of glucose and insulin to determine the effectiveness of the therapy. The blood glucose level should be monitored during the infusion to assess for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. The BUN and creatinine levels will not change with administration of glucose and insulin.
A patient in ARF has a gradual increase in urinary output to 3400 ml a day with a BUN of 92 mg/dl (33 mmol/L) and a serum creatinine of 4.2 mg (371 μmol/L). The nurse should plan to
a. use a urine dipstick to monitor for proteinuria.
b. auscultate the lungs to assess for pulmonary edema.
c. take the blood pressure to check for hypotension.
d. draw blood to monitor for hyperkalemia.
Rationale: During the diuretic phase of ARF, fluid and electrolyte losses may cause hypovolemia, hypotension, hyponatremia, and hypokalemia. Proteinuria, pulmonary edema, and hyperkalemia occur during the oliguric phase.
After noting increasing QRS intervals in a patient with ARF, which action should the nurse take first?
a. Notify the patient's health care provider.
b. Check the chart for the most recent blood potassium level.
c. Look at the patient's current BUN and creatinine levels.
d. Document the QRS interval.
Rationale: The increasing QRS interval is suggestive of hyperkalemia, so the nurse should check the most recent potassium and then notify the patient's health care provider. The BUN and creatinine will be elevated in a patient with ARF, but these would not directly affect the ECG. Documentation of the QRS interval is also appropriate, but interventions to decrease the potassium level are needed to prevent life-threatening bradycardia.
A patient with renal insufficiency is scheduled for an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Which of the following orders for the patient will the nurse question?
a. Ibuprofen (Advil) 400 mg PO PRN for pain
b. Dulcolax suppository 4 hours before IVP procedure
c. Normal saline 500 ml IV before procedure
d. NPO for 6 hours before IVP procedure
Rationale: The contrast dye used in IVPs is nephrotoxic, and concurrent use of other nephrotoxic medications such as the NSAIDs should be avoided. The suppository and NPO status are necessary to ensure that adequate visualization during the IVP. IV fluids are used to ensure adequate hydration, which helps reduce the risk for contrast-induced renal failure.
A diabetic patient is admitted for evaluation of renal function because of recent fatigue, weakness, and elevated BUN and serum creatinine levels. While obtaining a nursing history, the nurse identifies an early symptom of renal insufficiency when the patient states,
a. "I get up several times every night to urinate."
b. "I wake up in the night feeling short of breath."
c. "My memory is not as good as it used to be."
d. "My mouth and throat are always dry and sore."
Rationale: Polyuria occurs early in chronic kidney disease (CKD) as a result of the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. The other symptoms would be expected later in the progression of CKD.
A patient is diagnosed with stage 3 CKD. The patient is treated with conservative management, including erythropoietin injections. After teaching the patient about management of CKD, the nurse determines teaching has been effective when the patient states,
a. "I will measure my urinary output each day to help calculate the amount I can drink."
b. "I need to take the erythropoietin to boost my immune system and help prevent infection."
c. "I need to try to get more protein from dairy products."
d. "I will try to increase my intake of fruits and vegetables."
Rationale: The patient with CKD who is not receiving dialysis is generally taught to restrict fluids. The patient would need to measure urine output and then add 600 ml for insensible losses to calculate an appropriate oral intake. Erythropoietin is given to increase red blood cell count and will not offer any benefit for immune function. Dairy products are restricted because of the high phosphate level. Many fruits and vegetables are high in potassium and should be restricted in the patient with CKD.
A patient with CKD has a nursing diagnosis of disturbed sensory perception related to central nervous system changes induced by uremic toxins. An appropriate nursing intervention for this problem is to
a. convey a caring attitude and foster the nurse-patient relationship.
b. keep the patient on bed rest to avoid possible falls or other injuries.
c. ensure restricted protein intake to prevent nitrogenous product accumulation.
d. provide an opportunity for the patient to discuss concerns about the condition.
Rationale: Uremia is caused by the products of protein breakdown, and protein restriction is used to decrease uremia. Because the primary cause of the patient's disturbed sensory perception is the uremia, conveying a caring attitude and providing opportunities for the patient to discuss concerns will not be as helpful as protein restriction. Although safety is a concern for the patient, bed rest is likely to promote weakness. The patient should be supervised when out of bed.
The RN observes an LPN/LVN carrying out all these actions while caring for a patient with renal insufficiency. Which action requires the RN to intervene?
a. The LPN/LVN carries a tray containing low-protein foods into the patient's room.
b. The LPN/LVN assists the patient to ambulate in the hallway.
c. The LPN/LVN administers erythropoietin subcutaneously.
d. The LPN/LVN gives the iron supplement and phosphate binder with lunch.
Rationale: Oral phosphate binders should not be given at the same time as iron because they prevent the iron from being absorbed. The phosphate binder should be given with a meal and the iron given at a different time. The other actions by the LPN/LVN are appropriate for a patient with renal insufficiency.
Before administration of calcitriol (Rocaltrol) to a patient with CKD, the nurse should check the laboratory value for
a. serum phosphate.
b. total cholesterol.
Rationale: If serum phosphate is elevated, the calcium and phosphate can cause soft tissue calcification. The calcitriol should not be given until the phosphate level is lowered. Total cholesterol, creatinine, and potassium values do not impact whether calcitriol should be administered.
A client is admitted for treatment of chronic renal failure (CRF). The nurse knows that this disorder increases the client's risk of:
a. a decreased serum phosphate level secondary to kidney failure.
b. an increased serum calcium level secondary to kidney failure.
c. water and sodium retention secondary to a severe decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.
d. metabolic alkalosis secondary to retention of hydrogen ions.
water and sodium retention secondary to a severe decrease in the glomerular filtration rate.
Explanation: The client with CRF is at risk for fluid imbalance — dehydration if the kidneys fail to concentrate urine, or fluid retention if the kidneys fail to produce urine. Electrolyte imbalances associated with this disorder result from the kidneys' inability to excrete phosphorus; such imbalances may lead to hyperphosphatemia with reciprocal hypocalcemia. CRF may cause metabolic acidosis, not metabolic alkalosis, secondary to inability of the kidneys to excrete hydrogen ions.
A client is admitted with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. His blood pressure on admission is 74/30 mm Hg. The client is oliguric and his blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels are elevated. The physician will most likely write an order for which treatment?
a. Start I.V. fluids with a normal saline solution bolus followed by a maintenance dose.
b. Administer furosemide (Lasix) 20 mg I.V.
c. Encourage oral fluids.
d. Start hemodialysis after a temporary access is obtained.
Start IV fluids with normal saline solution bolus followed by a maintenance dose.
Explanation: The client is in prerenal failure caused by hypovolemia. I.V. fluids should be given with a bolus of normal saline solution followed by maintenance I.V. therapy. This treatment should rehydrate the client, causing his blood pressure to rise, his urine output to increase, and the BUN and creatinine levels to normalize. The client wouldn't be able to tolerate oral fluids because of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The client isn't fluid-overloaded so his urine output won't increase with furosemide, which would actually worsen the client's condition. The client doesn't require dialysis because the oliguria and elevated BUN and creatinine levels are caused by dehydration.
Which of the following would the nurse expect to find when reviewing the laboratory test results of a client with renal failure?
a. Increased red blood cell count
b. Decreased serum potassium level
c. Increased serum calcium level
d. Increased serum creatinine level
Increased serum creatinine level
Explanation: In renal failure, laboratory blood tests reveal elevations in BUN, creatinine, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Calcium levels are low. The RBC count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin are decreased.
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