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APUSH Chapter 13
Terms in this set (45)
Known as "Old Hickory"; hates the British and the Indians; war hero in the Battle of New Orleans; defeated Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend; believed in the Common Man; reduced voting restictions; 7th president; "Good Ole Boy System"; Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears; Worcester v. Georgia
John C. Calhoun
War Hawk; supporter of states' rights; believed South Carolina had the right to "nullify", or ignore, federal laws that they thought were wrong, part of Whig Party
War Hawk; called "the Great Compromiser" because of his ability to get opposing sides to agree; Missouri Compromise; speaker of House from Kentucky, Secretary of State in Adams' administration after the 1824 election; created American System; Compromise of 1850
Martin Van Buren
Known as "Little Magician" vice president; destruction of Second Bank of the United States; blocked annexation of Texas; Panic of 1837; Free Soil Party
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work. Puritanical Yankee like his father
Famous American politician and orator. he advocated renewal and opposed the financial policy of Jackson. Many of the principles of finance he spoke about were later incorporated in the Federal Reserve System. Would later push for a strong union.
President of the Second Bank of the United States, tries to get bank re-instated with a new charter to expand length, but Jackson denies. Biddle tries to turn nation against Jackson by financial/economic debt.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Came from France to America in 1831, observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages and disadvantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
became President after William Harrison died; not a true Whig; was a Southern Democrat who sided with the Whigs because he did not like Andrew Jackson; begin to oppose Whig agenda; known as the President without a party because he was kicked out of Whig Party; vetoed Bank of the United States, lowered tariff
Sauk leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, he led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.
the nickname for the Election of 1824, when no candidate received the majority of the electoral votes, so the race went in the hands of the House of Representatives. The H.O.R then elected John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson. People thought this was fixed and unfair, and that Henry Clay convinced the Congress to make this decision.
the procedure of the house of representatives choosing the president if their is a tie and that is how adams was elected in the corrupt bargain of 1824.
Andrew Jackson was referred to as this because he was always surrounded by crowds of people, and this "mob populism" and this name was created by the people who DON'T believe that he is an advocate for the "common man".
what jackson did when he took office he rewarded his candidates by giving them places in office.
an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy; typically led by a boss & have a long-term group of dedicated workers who depend on the patronage generated by government contracts and jobs
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
South Carolina Exposition
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
South Carolina Party that wanted to nullify the tariff of abominations
primarily the Orange Protestants in the north, who supported the Act of Union
Tariff of 1832
Was to replace the tariff of Abominations, it pared away the worst but it was still frankly protective and fell far short of the southern demands. This deepened the Nullification Crisis. Proposed by John Quincy Adams as a protectionist tariff
a Tariff to appease the south and would gradually reduce 10 percent over a period of 8 years. 1833
loyalty to a particular region
authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832
Trail of Tears
the forced removal of the Cherokee to Oklahoma in the winter 1838-1839; many died along the way
Bank of the United States
jackson did not like it. States the national bank that the government deposited money from taxes into and issued paper money
Indian Removal Act
(1830) signed into law by Andrew Jackson, very controversial, widely accepted in South. States were eager to gain the land that was occupied by the tribes in the Cherokee Nation. This act was extremely inhumane, and supported by the majority of the European Americans
Five Civilized Tribes
the collective name for the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes of Indians who, in spite of their adaptation to European culture, were deported to the Indian Territory from 1830 to 1840.
Cherokee Nation vs Georgia
(1831, Marshall). "The conditions of the Indians in relation to the United States is perhaps unlike that of any two people in existence," Chief Justice John Marshall wrote, "their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian. . .(they were a) domestic dependent nation." Established a "trust relationship" with the tribes directly under federal authority.
Worcester vs Georgia
(1832, Marshall). Established tribal autonomy within their boundaries, i.e. the tribes were "distinct political communities, having territorial boundaries within which their authority is exclusive."
a bank that issued notes without adequate security in the period before the establishment of the national banking system in 1864.
state banks where Jackson deposited federal money after it had been wiithdrawn from the national bank
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
They became the Whig party during Jackson's second term. John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay guided this party in the 1830s. They were the Jeffersonian Republicans, along with numerous former Federalists who believed that the national government should advocate economic development.
One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 from a split in democratic republicans by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights
Jackson believe his election meant the people wanted the bank to be exterminated immediately
First Party System
Began in 1792. The federalist party and its opposing republican party competed for control of the presidency. Republican party was made because people saw the federalists as gaining too much power.
Second Party System
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats.
First founded in New York, it gained considerable influence in New England and the mid-Atlantic during the 1832 election, campaigning against the politically influential Masonic order, a secret society. Anti-Masons opposed Andrew Jackson, a Mason, and drew much of their support from evangelical Protestants.
Election of 1824
none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Election of 1828
Jackson's election showed shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from quincy adams to jackson (revolution of 1828)
Election of 1832
Jackson vs. Clay
-first election with a third party -Anti-Masonic
Election of 1836
Whigs run several candidates
Jackson nominates Van Buren
-Van Buren won
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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