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Microbiology Exam 3
Terms in this set (248)
internal defense mechanism against pathogens
Innate Immune System
-immediate, nonspecific immunity
-no learning process or memory
-does not learn upon exposure
-efficient at eliminating and blocking pathogen from getting in
Adaptive Immune System
-acquired specific immunity
-specific recognition and memory
-acquired as exposed to pathogens
-able to differentiate between self and nonself
first line defenses, sensor systems, second line defenses
type of systems/defense used in innate immune system
third line defense
type of systems/defense used in adaptive immune system
first line defense
second line defense
third line defense
-destroy invader and memorize response
-humoral and cellular immunity
humoral and cellular immunity
third line defenses include:
skin, mucous membranes, antimicrobial substances, normal flora
examples of first line defense
inflammation, fever, phagocytes
examples of second line defense
-wash away irritating substances and microbes
-lysozyme kills many bacteria
-provides a physical barrier to the entrance of microbes
-acidic pH discourages the growth of organisms
-sweat, oil, and fatty acid secretions kill many bacteria
-normal bacterial inhabitants keep invaders in check
-washes microbes from the teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth
-mucus traps organisms
-cilia sweep away trapped organisms
-acid kills organisms
-urine washes microbes from urethra
-difficult for microbes to penetrate
-chemical and physical barrier --> impermeable and inhospitable
-epidermis and dermis
-tightly packed layers of epithelial cells (keratinocytes)
-outermost: dead, repels water, filled with keratin, shedding
-sweat: sweat glands (salty)
-sebum: sebaceous glands (acidic)
digestive, respiratory, genitourinary
epithelial layer bathed in mucus lining _______, _______, and ________ tracts.
mucus is produced by this.
moistens tracts, trap & wash pathogens off
two functions of mucus
-beating action of cilia of propels microbes upwards away from lungs
-in our trachea and bronchi
-cough it out or swallow it to eliminate it
trachea and bronchi
where is the ciliary escalator located?
-muscular contraction of intestinal wall resulting in movement of content into the rectum for defecation
-rich in fatty acids
-natural oil of our skin
-inhospitable for pathogens
-rich in fatty acids
-wax in the ears
-inhospitable for pathogens
-kills most bacteria & toxins
-one exception: Clostridium botulinum
exception that withstands acidity of the stomach
-glycoprotein that is widely secreted in various fluids in our body
-goal is to sequester free iron
-minimizes its availability as a substrate for bacterial growth (bacteria need it to grow)
-causes bacterial lysis
Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs)
-produced by our cells that are secreted
-defensins and lysozyme
defensins and lysozymes
examples of AMPs
-form pores in microbial membranes (cytolysis)
-more potent natural penicillin that is found in our body
-targets bacteria during division and through any stage in life
-microorganisms colonizing body surfaces in healthy humans, preventing the overgrowth of harmful microbes by:
*competitive exclusion of pathogens
*production of toxic compounds
-e.g., digestion of food, vitamin synthesis (synthesize vitamin K), act as biological barrier, inhibits colonization of pathogens
Competitive Exclusion of Pathogens
-cover binding/attachment sites and consume available nutrients
-especially effective against Salmonella, Shigella
Production of Toxic Compounds
-fermentation products (acetic and butyric acids) inhibit intestinal pathogens (esp. Salmonella)
-Lactobacillus produce lactic acid in vagina (low pH) and hydrogen peroxide (effective against Chlamydia, Candida albicans)
Disruption of _____ can predispose to infections, such as Oral candidiasis or Thrush, Vulvovaginal candidiasis or yeast infection; caused by Candida albicans.
plasma, white blood cells, platelets, red blood cells
what is the blood composed of?
what is most present in the white blood cells?
white blood cells (leukocytes)
coordinate efforts in controlling infections in the second and third lines of defenses.
infection, autoimmune disease, cancer, side-effect to medication/treatment (or other medical conditions)
A high or low WBC can indicate:
transportation, regulation (hemostasis), protection
3 Categories of Blood Cells
mast cell, eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil, monocyte (becomes dendritic cells and macrophages), T cell, B cell, natural killer cell
blood cells that are involved in protection (8)
erythrocyte (red blood cell)
blood cells that are involved in transportation
blood cells involved in regulation
hematopoietic stem cells
What type of cell gives rise to all blood cells?
myeloid stem cell and lymphoid stem cell
what are the two progenitor stem cells? form after hematopoietic stem cell and prior to blood cell formation
-actually cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocyte.
-cells that are attracted to injury site
-function in clotting
hematopoietic stem cells, bone marrow, hematopoiesis
Blood cells originate from _____________ in the ___________ in a process called _________.
-move through walls of capillaries to enter infected tissues
-named based on staining properties of granules (active chemicals)
-stain poorly: pale lilac
-most numerous (60% of WBCs)
-important in inflammation: first responders
2. intracellular killing by phagocytosis
3. extracellular killing by degranulation or NET release (NETosis)
-not first to detect infection, but first to respond
neutrophils, diapedesis, phagocytes, phagocytosis, degranulation, NETs, DNA, protein, NETosis, around
When there is an infection, ________ in blood will cross over by ________ and get into infected tissue. Then, when in the tissue, they function as _______ and perform ________. It cannot always keep up with this, however, and sometimes resorts to _________. Also can release ______, which are a combination of _____ and ______. They commit suicide and inject it out. This is a form of necrosis called ______. This kills cells _____ the neutrophil.
-stain blue with basic dye
-involved in allergic reactions and inflammation: release heparin and histamine
-similar in appearance and function to mast cells, found in tissues instead
blood thinner, anticoagulant; allows more blood to flow through which brings more immune cells to infection
increase permeability, vasodilation to facilitate diapedesis
-stay in blood until they get signal to enter tissues
-in allergic rxns & inflammation
-stain orange-red with acidic dye
-found mostly in specific tissues (not in lungs)
-involved in allergic reactions, inflammation, and combatting parasites via ADCC
what type of granulocyte is a sign of disease if it is present in the lungs?
-granules not visible with light microscope after staining
monocytes (mononuclear phagocytes)
-circulate in blood and migrate into tissues to differentiate into either macrophages or dendritic cells.
-both^ are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that act as sentinel phagocytic cells
-descendant of myeloid pregenerator
-highest phagocytic activity (kidney, liver...)
-skin, mucous membranes
-descendant of lymphoid stem cells
-NK cells, T and B cells
sentinel cells that target infected body cells, tumor cells and parasites by releasing toxic substances (perforins and granzymes)
form hole in parasite
go into hole in parasite and kill it. trigger death
T and B cells
highly specific, play key role in adaptive immunity
-soluble proteins that act as the voice of cells allowing a coordinated immune response
-regulate timing, intensity, duration of immune response
-produced mostly by immune cells
chemokines, interferons (IFNs), colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), interleukins (ILs)
4 major categories of cytokines
chemotaxis of leukocytes. attracts the cells.
-cytokines produced in response to viruses.
-they alert neighboring host cells, stimulate NK cells, macrophages.
-sends signal to nucleus to form antiviral proteins that now prepare and ready to attack virus
Colony-Stimulating Factors (CSFs)
induce hematopoiesis. replenish immune cells.
activates immune cells proliferation, maturation, activation, and migration during immune response
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
-soluble or bound to host cell
-part of innate system
Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs)
-microbial components that remained unchanged over the course of evolution:
*cell wall components (LPS, PG)
*bacterial peptides (flagellin)
*bacterial and viral DNA or RNA
-can be detected as "non-self" by PRRs of sentinel cells of the innate immune system, triggering a response against pathogen
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs)
-Receptors of sentinel cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, mucosal epithelial cells, endothelial cells, lymphocytes) that can detect PAMPs and trigger response against pathogen:
*releasing cytokines to alert and recruit immune cells, and trigger inflammation
toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs)
3 major types of PRRs
Toll-like receptors (TLRs)
-membrane-bound and monitor cell's surrounding
RIG-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs)
-soluble and monitor cell's cytoplasm
The Complement System
-consists of a group of serum proteins (C1-C9, factors)
-can detect pathogenic components
-activate a cascade of events leading to immune responses
-ingestion (endocytosis) of microbes by phagocytes (e.g., neutrophils, fixed/free macrophages, dendritic cells)
neutrophils, (fixed/free) macrophages, dendritic cells
examples of phagocytes
the body's response to tissue damage and/or infection to help contain site of damage, localize response, eliminate invader, and restore tissue function.
an abnormally high body temperature in response to infection, caused by pyrogens (endogenous vs. exogenous)
Produced within the body
Produced outside the body
host molecule that can bind to a pathogen. tags it for phagocytosis.
The Complement System
-functions as a sensory system and a second line defense through the proteins (C1-C9 + factors)
-must be activated to mount complement response
induced by C3a and C5a
induced by C3b (or lectin) --> phagocytosis
lysis of foreign cells by the membrane attack complexes (MACs) formed by C5b, C6, C7, C8, and C9
alternative pathway, lectin pathway, classical pathway
3 ways to detect pathogen (complement system)
triggered by antibodies binding to microbial invaders
triggered by factors binding to microbial invaders
triggered by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binding to microbial invaders
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, phagolysosome formation, digestion, elimination (exocytosis), antigen presentation on MHC
steps of phagocytosis
major histocompatibility complex
What does MHC stand for?
receptors (TLRs) - PAMPs
receptors - host molecules opsonizing pathogen
-protective biological response triggered by _____ mediators released by host cells (e.g., cytokines, histamine, prostaglandins) in response to tissue damage or infection
-acute vs. chronic
results in pain (chemicals, nerve), swelling (edema; fluids), redness (erythema; vasodilation), heat (vasodilation), sometimes loss of function (severe cases)
-temperature regulation center
-normally set at 37 degrees C (98.6 degree F), but raises during infection in response to pyrogens
cytokines (interleukins), C5a
such as LPS of gram-negative bacteria
moderate temperature rise
increases rates of enzymes, enhances inflammatory response, phagocytic killing, multiplication of lymphocytes, production of interferons and antibodies, and release of leukocytes from bone marrow
high temperature rise
may compromise older people with medical conditions, can cause dehydration, seizure in children, delirium and coma. Death occurs when temperature reaches 45 C (113 F)
Which blood cell causes healthy host tissue/cell death?
macrophage, dendritic cell, neutrophil
which blood cell is an efficient phagocyte?
B and T cells
which blood cell is involved in adaptive immunity only?
mast cells, basophils
which blood cell secretes histamine?
eosinophils, NK cells
which blood cell targets parasites?
which blood cell is a non-nucleated cell?
which blood cell is the first responder to a site of inflammation?
monocytes & lymphocytes
which blood cell is a sentinel cell?
Both are phagocytic cells. Involved in inflammation.
How are the roles of neutrophils and macrophages similar?
Myeloid progenitor , circulate blood, diapedesis, specialize into Macrophage or
Dendritic cell in tissues
What did you learn about monocytes?
To alert cells of the immune system that an invader is present
Why would a cell produce cytokines when a PRR detects a PAMP?
NLRs/RLRs detect intracellular microbes that invaded the cell.
TLRs detect extracellular invaders, material ingested by phagocyte
With respect to the source of microbial components detected (extra vs. intra
cellular), how do NLRs and RLRs differ from TLRs?
To detect invaders in the blood stream
Why would it be beneficial for the cells that line the blood vessels to have
TLRs on their surface?
They assemble in the microbial cell membrane and form MACs creating pores
How do complement proteins cause foreign cell lysis?
It can survive within the phagocyte, and eventually kill it and escape.
What would happen if a bacterium could prevent the phagosome from fusing
Which type of phagocyte is the first to be recruited to a site of inflammation?
Phagolysosomes contain enzymes + toxic substances
How does a phagolysosome differ from a phagosome?
Extracellular killing of phagocytes ( NETosis )
Most tissue destruction associated with bacterial infections is a result of ____
Adherence: Recognition and indirect attachment
Molecules such as C3b are involved in which step of phagocytosis?
third line defenses
-destroy invader and memorize response
-designed to recognize self vs. nonself
-dual: humoral response (B cells) and cellular response (T cells)
-primary vs. secondary responses
cells building block; secreted by cell; self vs. nonself; if nonself, our immune system recognizes it as foreign
3D region of a protein; specific part of antigen that our receptors recognize, bind to, and elicit an immune response
lymphocyte. responsible for humoral immune response. receptors on its surface that recognize epitope of antigen.
-self vs. nonself molecule
-self can elicit an immune response in others (transplant, transfusion)
-nonself are immunogens that elicits an immune response (microbes, vaccine, pollen), and production of highly specific corresponding antibodies. recognized by our receptors.
can elicit an immune response in others (transplant, transfusion)
immunogens that elicits an immune response (microbes, vaccine, pollen), and production of highly specific corresponding antibodies. recognized by our receptors.
-stretches of AA/3D regions of antigen
-recognized by specific receptors
-bacterial cell has multitude of different ones
-each antibody specifically binds to one corresponding
change as they develop/encounter antigen
-lack fully developed antigen-specific receptors and self-tolerance
-doesn't differentiate self from nonself
mature naive lymphocytes
-have fully developed receptors, and selected for self-tolerance
-can differentiate self vs. nonself
-ready to be released and detect nonself antigens
A disease that can occur when the cells (lymphocytes) cannot differentiate self from nonself after being released
-antigen-bound and proliferate to two types:
effector lymphocytes, memory lymphocytes
two types of activated lymphocytes
-descendants of activated lymphocytes that mount immune response against current infection
-e.g., plasma B cells, Tc cells, Th cells
plasma B cells, Tc cells, Th cells
examples of effector lymphocytes
-long-lived descendants of activated lymphocytes
-responsible for rapid secondary response if antigen encountered again
-mount faster and more efficient secondary response
-responsible for humoral immune response
-form an mature in the bone marrow
-maturation involves maturation of BCRs and negative selection of self-reactive B
-more than 100 million in our body
form and mature in bone marrow
maturation involves maturation of BCRs and negative selection of self-reactive B
B, b-cell receptors (BCRs), 2, epitope
each ___ cell expresses several ________ (__) with ___ binding sites each, all recognizing the same specific _____ on pathogen
lymphoid, B, extracellular
travel to ______ tissue as naive ___ cells, activated by recognizing matching _______ antigen.
-responsible for cell-mediated immune response
-form in bone marrow and mature in thymus into helper or cytotoxic ___ cells
T-cell receptors (TCRs), co-receptor (CD), intracellular, MHC
Each T cell expresses ______ (___) with a ________ (__), which together recognize a specific _____ antigen only when presented on ____.
maturation of TCRs, thymic selection
maturation of T cells involves what two things?
positive & negative selection
what two things make up thymic selection?
keeping of T cells that bind self MHC
removing of self-reactive T cells
only go through negative selection
go through two levels of selection
if T cells bind and recognize self-antigens then the T cell is killed. if they dont recognize it they are released as immature naive lymphocytes. referred to as
where cells that recognize self MHC are kept and those that cant are killed.
lymphoid, intracellular, MHC
Travel to _____ tissue as naive T cells, activated by recognizing matching _____ antigen presented on ____.
BCR has ___ antigen binding sites
TCR has ____ antigen binding site and a ______.
BCR binds ____ antigen.
TCR binds ____ antigen presented on ____.
BCR binds to epitope _____.
coreceptor (CD marker)
TCR requires _______ to bind epitope on MHC.
-network providing an alternate route for interstitial fluid (15-20%)
-one way system
-allow interstitial fluid to flow in but not out
-carry many antigens through lymph nodes
-empty back into blood through subclavian vein
where IF is emptied back into blood from lymphatic system?
% of interstitial fluid that goes into lymphatic capillaries
bone marrow, thymus
primary lymphoid organs
primary lymphoid organs (bone marrow, thymus)
site of production and maturation of lymphocytes
secondary lymphoid organs
sites throughout body where lymphocytes and phagocytes gather and contact antigens
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids, MALT (e.g., peyer's patch)
examples of secondary lymphoid organs
causes more fluid to enter tissues, which increases antigen-containing fluid entering lymphatic system. lymph flows faster through system. detect pathogens faster.
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
-diffuse sampling system scattered along our mucosal linings providing protection against pathogens
-full of naive T and B cells
-e.g., peyer's patches in small intestine
-produced by B cells
-Y-shaped soluble proteins: 2 arms (Fab) + Stem (Fc)
-two copies: heavy chain and light chain domains joined by S-S
-two regions: variable region (V) and constant region (C)
antigen binding fragment
what does Fab (arms of Y-shape) stand for
what does Fc (stem of Y-shape) stand for
variable region (V) of antibody
2 specific antigen-binding sites
constant region (C) of antibody
5 functional classes (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE)
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE
5 functional classes of antibodies
Only ____ (2x) and ____ (1x) can activate complement system.
first antibody produced in primary response
cross placenta, first antibody produced in secondary response
expressed in milk, mucosal immunity
-can exit bloodstream to enter tissues
-provides longest-term protection: half-life in serum is 23 days
-generally first and most abundant serum Ig during secondary response
-only antibody transported across placenta to fetus's bloodstream
-also found in colostrum only (degrade by 6months)
-second antibody produced during primary response
only antibody that can cross placenta to fetus's bloodstream
provides longest-term protection: half-life in serum is 23 days
found in colostrum
first and most abundant serum Ig during secondary response
-pentamer (5 subunits = 10 antigen-binding sites)
-first class produced during primary response
-large size prevents crossing from bloodstream (bloodstream infections)
-mostly present as a dimer
*connected by J chain (secretory peptide wraps around Fc region of two monomers)
-secreted from important in mucosal immunity
*gastrointestinal, genitourinary, & respiratory tracts
*protects breastfed infants against intestinal pathogens
-secretory peptide helps resist enzymatic reactions in mucous, and helps immobilization
Join (J) chain
secretory peptide that wraps around the Fc region of the two monomers (IgA)
agglutination, opsonization, neutralization, complement system activation, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
5 protective outcomes of antibody-antigen binding
-cross-linking, immobilizing pathogens
-lowers amount of units to be dealt with
-phagocyte binds to Fc fragment - indirect attachment
-prevents toxins, viruses from binding to cell
-important for building up immunity
-antibodies attach to pathogen and prevent it from attaching to our cells
complement system activation
antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
-infected host cell or pathogenic cell targeted for destruction by immune cells (NK cells, eosinophils, & macrophages)
-killing of a cell that is dependent on antibody binding
-toxins released to kill target cell
maturation, activation (Clonal selection), clonal expansion, humoral response
steps in humoral immune response
humoral immune response
response against antigens in our fluid
B cell can be activated directly by a _________ binding to its matching BCR.
B cells require helper T cell (Th) confirmation for activation by a ________.
T-independent humoral response
10% of humoral responses are this
T-independent humoral response
-extracellular antigen binds BCRs directly and activates B cells, triggering clonal selection and expansion
-strong activation signal
-no Th confirmation needed
-no memory cells produced
-not very immunogenic in young children --> more susceptible to pathogens (e.g., Hib)
T-dependent Humoral Response
1. BCRs recognize and attach to antigen
2. Antigen is internalized (receptor-mediated endocytosis) and degraded into fragments
3. Antigen fragments are displayed on MHC Class II on B cell, attracting a matching helper T cell
4. Th cell secretes cytokines (ILs), activating B cell (Clonal Selection)
5. the activated B cell begins clonal expansion, producing an army of antibody-producing plasma cells and memory cells (Clonal Expansion)
macrophage, dendritic cells, B cells
-humoral immune response
-10 to 14 days for substantial antibody accumulation
-person may be sick although immune system is actively responding
-B cells undergo affinity maturation and class switching
-natural selection improving Ig affinity
-fine tuning their receptors that they are producing
-make them more sensitive & have higher affinity for pathogens they are fighting off
-IgM is first antibody isotype produced by plasma B cells
-Th cells can induce activated B cells to secrete other antibody classes by switching gene activation
*B cells in lymph nodes usually switch to IgG
*MALT B cells switch to IgA
memory B cells
formed after maturation and switching
-humoral immune response
-significantly faster, more effective: better quantity, better quality
-initiated by memory cell
plasma B cells
when activated, memory B cells become what?
newly activated B cells will produce ___
-carried out by T cells, which combat intracellular pathogens (e.g., viral protein within a cell, phagocytized molecules)
-helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells have TCR and CD to recognize antigens only presented on MHC of other cells (MHC + antigen)
CD8 (Tc), CD4 (Th)
two main subsets in T cells
Class I, Class II
two main MHC classes
CD8, I, nucleated
Tc (____) bind antigen presented on MHC ___ of any _____ host cell
CD4, II, antigen-presenting cell
Th (____) bind antigen presented on MHC ___ of an ___________.
dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells
antigen-presenting cells (APCs)
clonal selection, clonal expansion
Mechanism of Cell-Mediated Immunity
-dendritic cells migrate through the lymph and present epitope on MHC to mature naive T cells
-activated T cells proliferate and differentiate into effector T cells and memory T cells
-activated Tc (CD8) cells, by MHC I-bound antigen, differentiated into effector cytotoxic T cells (Tc or CTLs) & memory Tc cells
-activated Th (CD4) cells, by MHC II-bound antigen, differentiate into effector helper T cells (Th) & memory Th cells
effector functions of CD8 cells
-recognize antigen on MHC class I of infected host cells
-Tc induces apoptosis by releasing digestive enzymes (perforins and granzymes), and also release cytokines that alert neighboring cells
________ cells ensure faster secondary response
effector function of CD4 cells
-recognize antigens presented on MHC class II of APCs
-secrete cytokines that:
1. activate B cells and induce B cell clonal expansion
2. activate macrophages to increase power and fuse to form giant cells: increased size, metabolism, number of lysosymes
3. direct and support Tc cells proliferation and differentiation
Which type of leukocyte functions as a main bridge between the innate and
adaptive immune system?
they are secondary lymphoid organs; where B cells and T cells gather and encounter antigens that flowed through the lymphatic vessels from the tissues
What is the function of lymph nodes?
the antigen, by binding to the lymphocyte receptor, "selects" which lymphocyte may begin multiplying = activation
What is meant by clonal selection?
a single specificity. each B cell is programmed to recognize a specific epitope, and all plasma cells that descend from that B cell make antibodies that bind to that particular epitope.
Would a plasma cell produce antibody molecules of the same specificity or
cytotoxic T cells recognize antigen presented on an MHC class I molecule; whereas helper T cells can recognize antigen presented on an MHC class II molecule
Which cell type recognizes peptides presented on MHC class I molecules?
No. Tc cells rely on antigen presentation on MHC class I molecules to recognize that a cell is infected. NK cells could.
Could a T C cell induce apoptosis in a "self" cell that lost the ability to produce
MHC class I molecules?
every response would be equivalent to a primary response (taking a week or so to develop, and first antibodies made be IgM)
How would the adaptive immune response be affected if memory cells could
not be produced?
Which maternal antibody classes protect a breastfed newborn?
A naïve lymphocyte has never "seen" the epitope to which it is programmed for. Activated
lymphocytes have encountered the epitope + have received any required signals to proliferate
and elicit the corresponding adaptive immune response
How does a naive lymphocyte differ from an activated one?
Affinity maturation; mutations occur in the multiplying B cells, and the progeny that has the
strongest affinity for the antigen is more apt to multiply.
How does the ability to bind antigen increase as B cells multiply?
It eliminates lymphocytes that would recognize "self" molecules
Why is negative selection important?
What kind of diseases would be expected to occur as a result of lack of
negative selection of T or B lymphocytes?
a. physical: movement out; chemical: lysozyme, acids
b. physical: movement out; chemical: acidic environment in female
Identify at least one physical factor and one chemical factor that prevent microbes from entering the body through each of the following:
a. urinary tract
b. reproductive tract
Inflammation is the body's response to tissue damage. The characteristic symptoms of inflammation are pain, redness, immobility, swelling, and heat.
Define inflammation and list its characteristics.
a. innate. facilitate adherence of phagocyte and pathogen
b. innate. bind iron.
c. innate. kill or inhibit bacteria.
Are the following involved in innate or adaptive immunity? Identify the role of each in immunity:
c. antimicrobial peptides
If the following are placed in the order of occurrence, which would be the third step?
c. formation of a phagosome
d. formation of a phagolysosome
If the following are placed in order of occurrence, which would be the third step?
a. activation of C5 through C9
b. cell lysis
c. antigen-antibody reaction
d. activation of C3
e. activation of C2 through C4
A decrease in the production of C3 would result in:
a. increased susceptibility to infection
b. increased numbers of white blood cells
c. increased phagocytosis
d. activation of C5 through C9
e. none of the above
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