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EXSC 3600 Exam 2
Terms in this set (24)
Nutrients from foods are _____ for metabolism
chemical pathways in cells that convert substrates to usable energy
(adenosine triphosphate) source of energy for body functions
measure of energy in biological systems, measure of heat
fairly equivalent use of CHO and fat
limited energy for cellular activity; building blocks for the body's tissues
intense short duration activity
longer, less intense activity
uses fats and CHO
main fuel for brain and muscles. converted to and stored as glycogen in liver and muscles
stored in cytoplasm of muscle cells, can be quickly used to form ATP. Stored in the liver and converted back to glucose, transported to muscles to form ATP
Energy source during prolonged, low intensity activity. Body stores larger than CHO (70,000+kcal) more energy from fat (9.4kcal/g) and stored as triglycerides
when a cell increases the number of receptors to a hormone (so there is an increase in sensitivity to a hormone). An example is insulin receptors; upregulation means we don't need as much insulin in our bloodstream to move glucose into the cells. Insulin receptors are upregulated with regular exercise, which is beneficial to moving glucose out of the blood and into the cells that need it.
when a cell decreases the number of receptors (so a decrease in sensitivity). This means we end up with more of the hormone in the blood trying to do it's 'job'. Insulin receptors are downregulated with Type 2 diabetes, which results in an inability to move glucose out of the blood and into the cells. This is problematic, as blood glucose levels need to be maintained within a pretty small range.
accumulation results in muscular fatigue because cells do not function well in an acidic environment.
can serve as a source of fuel.
Energy systems in wingate test
ATP creatine phosphate system and glycolytic system
ATP and creatine phosphate
only 5-10 seconds, found in muscle stores
used for 1-3 minutes, using glycolysis in anaerobic conditions, accumulations of lactate and decreased muscle pH
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
low-energy molecule that can be converted to ATP
the short-term anaerobic energy system that maintains ATP levels. Breakdown of phosphocreatine (PCr) frees Pi, which then combines with ADP to form ATP
the body's most complex energy system, which generates energy by disassembling fuels with the aid of oxygen and has a very high energy yield.
three stages make up the system: Glycolysis, Kreb's cycle, electron transport chain
breakdown of glucose, can be aerobic or anaerobic
glycogen synthesis from glucose; for storage
breakdown of glycogen to glucose
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