Abnormal Psych Study Guide 2!

Crystal's father recently died of prostate cancer, and she is concerned that she also has cancer. Crystal has been experiencing mild abdominal pains, and is convinced that it is evidence of stomach cancer. All she can think or talk about is dying of cancer and leaving her three young children behind.
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Crystal's father recently died of prostate cancer, and she is concerned that she also has cancer. Crystal has been experiencing mild abdominal pains, and is convinced that it is evidence of stomach cancer. All she can think or talk about is dying of cancer and leaving her three young children behind.
Eleanor keeps a daily diary of her long list of ailments. Recently, she became very distressed about the comorbidity of several disorders and went into Dr. Arnold's office with the diary, seven different types of prescribed medication, and a thick folder of medical records. Unfortunately, Dr. Arnold was unable to find anything physically wrong with Eleanor.
All somatic symptom and related disorders include an overwhelming preoccupation with the physical functioning of the body. The specific disorders are differentiated by either the types of symptoms present or the consequences of detecting symptoms. Somatic symptom disorder can be distressing due to the physical symptoms that often accompany the disorder. Which of the following best describes how psychologists view these symptoms?
Ana has recently been diagnosed with dissociative amnesia after being unable to remember anything of her fifth birthday, the day her mother died. Ana is showing signs oflocalized amnesia.A culturally specific subtype of dissociative identity disorder, dissociative trance disorder, involves a person being in a trancelike state—often involving what appears to be possession by a spirit—that is ________to members of the person's culture.undesirableThe validity of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a controversial subject. Which of the following best describes why patients are motivated to fake their symptoms, according to scientists who are skeptical of dissociative identity disorder (DID)?A therapist suggests the possibility that a patient has multiple identities and responds positively when a new identity is produced.The exact causes of dissociative identity disorder are hard to pinpoint, but there are certain characteristics shared by patients with this disorder. Which of the following have researchers discovered regarding the development of DID? Check all that apply.-The symptoms of DID share many of the same features as those of obsessive-compulsive disorder. -Patients with DID tend to have higher than normal levels of suggestibility. -Researchers have identified a genetic mutation associated with increased risk of DID.Clancy, the patient found to have dissociative identity disorder, is now working with a therapist to treat his symptoms. The therapist is outlining how they will identify cues that often precede a switch in identity in order toneutralize these triggers.According to research, why do people with dissociative identity disorder develop multiple personalities, or alters?Alters are developed as a means by which to cope with abuse or trauma.According to the DSM-5, all of the following are symptoms of dissociative identity disorder except one. Which of the following is not noted as a symptom of dissociative identity disorder, according to the DSM-5?Recurrent imagined or actual symptoms of anxiety or traumaWhen being forced to do things that he doesn't want to do, Akshay often finds that he is not really himself, but more like an entity above or behind himself.Depersonalization-derealization disorderLaura was recently in a plane crash. She is in the hospital being treated for moderate injuries but is unable to remember why she is there or how she was injured.Dissociative amnesiaEleanor woke up in a hotel room in Seattle not knowing who she was or how she got there. Her driver's license is from Virginia, but she has no memory of living there or of traveling west.Dissociative fugueAlbert started seeing a therapist so he could work through troubling emotions he is still dealing with as a result of being abused as a child. During the sessions, Albert's therapist was surprised to find that sometimes she spoke to Albert and sometimes she spoke to Axel, who identified himself as Albert's protector.Dissociative identity disorderWhile interviewing 129 women with documented histories of childhood sexual abuse, Williams (1994) found with extensive questioning that 38% of the womendid not recall the abuseWhile sitting in his psychology class one day, Ernie gets a feeling of being separated from himself. He actually feels that he is floating over his own body, watching himself sit in class. After some time, the feeling passes, but Ernie cannot understand how class is suddenly over if he doesn't remember most of the class time passing. Ernie has experienceddepersonalization.A person experiencing a conversion symptom called globus hystericus would experience which of the following?Feeling a lump in the throat that interferes with swallowing, eating, or talkingIn which of the following countries would the experience of a dissociative trance be seen as inconsistent with cultural norms and expectations?DenmarkVanna, who is 40, apparently believes that she is a 20-year-old woman. Suddenly, she starts to speak and behave very differently, and says she no longer thinks of herself as "Vanna." Instead, she claims to be Elise, a 10-year-old child. It is likely that Vanna should be diagnosed withdissociative identity disorderWhich of the following statements is true about dissociative identity disorder?. For prevalence rates, the ratio of females to males is approximately 9 to 1.Individuals with ________ experience loss of sense of reality in their external world. Things may seem to change size or shape, and others may seem dead or mechanical.derealizationJane has a constant worry about getting sick even though she does not have any immediate symptoms. Whenever there is a new story about a new bug of an outbreak of some virus like the flu, she finds herself feeling very worried about getting the latest sickness. If she gets a mild symptom like a runny nose or a small rash, she is immediately convinced that she is developing a serious illness. Jane would be best diagnosed withillness anxiety disorderWith regard to a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder, men areless likely than women to be diagnosed.When people suffer from a somatic symptom or related disorder they often either (a) get attention from others, or (b) get to avoid some unpleasant event. Freud called these benefitssecondary gain.Because there are similarities in the etiology between dissociative identity disorder (DID) and ________, some have suggested that DID is actually a subtype of this other condition.posttraumatic stress disorderJack has been caring for his elderly father for some time, and is beginning to feel the pressure of being a caretaker. For no identifiable reason, he has begun doing things that cause his father to become sick, so that his father can spend time in the hospital. He also finds that he enjoys the attention he gets when his father is sick. Jack may be diagnosed withfactitious disorder imposed on another.Research has suggested a connection between somatic symptom disorder and ________ personality disorder that lies in a neurobiologically shared disinhibition syndrome characterized by impulsive behavior.antisocialDora has agreed to go skydiving with her boyfriend to help him celebrate his 30th birthday, but she is absolutely terrified to do so. The morning of the big jump she wakes up and reports that she cannot feel or move her feet. She is upset by this, and her boyfriend takes her to the hospital. Doctors in the emergency room cannot find anything physically wrong with her. After the time for the sky-dive has passed, Dora's feeling of her feet seems to return without explanation. This could be an example of _______________.conversion disorderThe process of re-experiencing emotionally traumatic events as a means of purging them from the psyche was named ________ by Josef Breuer, and has proven to be an effective intervention with many emotional disorders.catharsisThe shorthand term that describes the different personalities or identities associated with dissociative identity disorder (DID) is ________.alterYour textbook authors describe a treatment plan for one of the somatic symptom and related disorders that includes efforts to reduce any reinforcing or supportive consequences of the illness's symptoms. For which condition is this a particularly important goal?conversion disorderJonah suffers from a mild case of asthma. It usually only causes him a problem when the weather turns colder, as he finds it more difficult to breathe in chilly air. At the same time, whenever Jonah is having an increase in stress at work or with his wife, he finds that his asthma symptoms start to flare up. Jonah might be diagnosed as dealing withpsychological factors affecting medical condition.While speculation regarding the cause of __________ continues, your authors note that almost every patient presenting with this condition reports a history of horrible, almost unspeakable abuse that they suffered in childhood.dissociative identity disorderThe original term for neurosis was "hysterical neurosis," which took its name from the idea thatit was caused by a "wandering uterus."The most severe form of depression is called a major depressive episode. Identify the symptoms that are characteristic of a major depressive episode. Check all that apply.-Feelings of worthlessness -Loss of interest or pleasure -Feelings of guilt -Altered sleep habitsA manic episode includes an extended period of elevated mood, often accompanied by excessive feelings of joy and hyperactivity. A less severe version of a manic episode is known as a __________ episode, while experiencing depression or anxiety at the same time as mania is known as a ________ episode.hypomanic, mixed featuresResearch has shown that a significant number of people suffering from persistent depressive disorder will eventually experience a major depressive episode. With which disorder would these people then be diagnosed?Double depressionExperiences hallucinations during major depressive episodespsychotic featuresExperiences excessive weight loss and inappropriate guilt during major depressive episodesmelancholic featuresExperiences frequent panic attacks during major depressive episodesAnxious distressExperiences an increase in goal-directed behaviors and becomes hyperactive during dysthymic phasesMixed featuresAbout a year ago, Janis was diagnosed with major depressive disorder. At that time, she often struggled with the thought that people disliked her so much that they were planning on murdering her. Additionally, she often heard voices saying that she was worthless. There were brief periods when these thoughts went away and she felt incredibly creative and talkative. During these times, Janis was very productive at work. Which specifiers seem to apply to Janis's diagnosis?Mixed and psychotic featuresFelix's therapist decides to treat his SAD with exposure to bright light in the morning during the winter. What side effect is Felix most likely to experience from this treatment?headachesResearch on SAD suggests that Felix's melatonin levels are likely:Higher in winter than in summerResearch suggests that people today are more likely than their grandparents to experience major depression between the ages of18 and 29Compared to people with major depressive disorder, people with persistent depressive disorder are:More likely to attempt suicideAfter losing a loved one, it is natural for people to feel a sense of grief. This typically consists of sadness, anxiety, and emotional numbness, all of which are depressive symptoms. As time goes on, this acute grief often evolves into integrated grief. Which of the following is the best description of integrated grief?The grieving individual accepts the loss and begins to focus on the positive memories of his or her loved one.Bipolar disorder typically begins at __________ major depressive disorder.an earlier age thanIf Carlos's positive moods elevated to the severe range (full manic episodes), what would his diagnosis likely be?Bipolar I disorderThe one-year and lifetime prevalence rates for dysthymia are _______ because of the_________ of the disorder.very similar, chronicityWhich of the following is true about major depressive disorder in adolescents?It is much more common in girls than boys.Why is depression in older adults sometimes said to be a vicious cycle?Increased illness and isolation in old age lead to depression, which then leads to greater illness and isolation.A person's culture often has an impact on the development of mood disorders, particularly depression. Which of the following statements accurately describe the relationship between depression and culture? Check all that apply.-Some cultures view depression as an individual problem, while others view it as a group issue. -The subjective feelings associated with depression are expressed similarly across cultures. -Some cultures experience depression at higher rates than others.Researchers conduct twin studies to examine the potential influence of genes on the development of mood disorders. Which of the following have researchers discovered about unipolar and bipolar mood disorders in identical twins?If one identical twin has a unipolar mood disorder, the other twin is much more likely to have a unipolar mood disorder than a bipolar mood disorder.Partly because it helps regulate emotional reactions, researchers believe that ___________ plays an important role in the development of mood disorders.serotoninWhich finding best supports the stress hypothesis of the etiology of depression?Depressed patients have higher cortisol levels than nondepressed patients.What sleep disturbances are characteristic of individuals with depression?REM sleep begins earlier and is more intense.Clancy has recurrent major depressive disorder. When he is having a major depressive episode, he tends to abuse drugs and alcohol. Although this sometimes helps to lift him out of his depression, it frequently leads to problems at work due to poor performance and missed workdays. The stress caused by the problems at work typically makes Clancy depressed again (or, even more depressed). What does this scenario illustrate regarding the relationship between stress and depression?It shows how depression can lead to stress.What does this scenario illustrate about the cause-and-effect relationship between stress and depression?Stress can cause depression and vice versa.According to Seligman's learned helplessness theory of depression, individuals are likely to become depressed when they ________attribute a wide range of negative events to __________ .consistently, their personal failingsIn addition to persistent negative thinking, individuals with bipolar disorder are likely to have cognitive styles characterized by _________ and ________________.ambition and perfectionismClinical psychologists who study intact marriages have found a connection between depression and marital problems. Interestingly, this connection affects men and women differently. For __________ , marital problems tend to cause depression, whereas for _________ , depression tends to cause marital problems.women, menA therapist dealing with a depressed patient who is unhappily married should:Treat the disturbed marital relationship as well as the patientAlthough bipolar disorder is equally prevalent among men and women, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and dysthymia is much higher for women. Which of the following is a proposed reason for why this may be true?Girls and women are taught to not feel much control over their world or problems.Based on what you know about the impact of social influences on mood disorders, select the individual who is most likely to benefit (in terms of a shorter time to recovery) from having a strong social support network.Kim comes from a large, close-knit family and they all talk and share their feelings regularly.A biological vulnerability to depression or anxiety can be described as __________ neurobiological response to stressful life events. When this is combined with ________ , or inadequate coping and depressive cognitive style combined with certain genetic patterns, a person is more likely to develop a mood disorder.an overactive, neuroticismFor an individual with biological and psychological vulnerability to bipolar disorder, which event would most likely trigger a manic episode?Starting a new jobCurrently considered first choice in drug treatment for depression. are currently the preferred drug treatment for mood disorders, but they may raise the risk of suicide for adolescents and have several side effects, including physical agitation, sexual dysfunction, and insomnia.Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)Includes venlafaxine (Effexor), which works by blocking multiple forms of reuptake. are the newest antidepressants and work by blocking the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine. These drugs have side effects that include nausea and sexual dysfunction.Mixed reuptake inhibitorMost widely used antidepressant before the introduction of the SSRIs. were the most widely used antidepressants before the introduction of SSRIs, but they include side effects so unpleasant that as many as 40% of patients stop taking the drug. In addition, overdoses of the drug can be lethal.Tricyclic inhibitorUsually used only if other antidepressants are ineffective. block an enzyme (monoamine oxidase, or MAO) that breaks down neurotransmitters. They can be effective, but they have dangerous interactions with some foods, beverages, and other drugs, and for that reason, they are often used only if other antidepressant medication has not worked.Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitorFound in drinking water in small amounts. is an antidepressant that is also known as a mood-stabilizing drug because it can prevent manic episodes. It is a common salt that is found in small amounts in the natural environment, including drinking water.lithiumAkshay has a history of suicidal tendencies and was recently diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Valproate and lithium are both used to treat bipolar disorder, but which drug is Akshay's psychiatrist likely to prescribe and why?Lithium, because it is more effective at preventing suicideElectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are distinct but related methods for treating mood disorders. How are these treatments alike?They both alter electrical activity in the brain.In addition to biological treatments such as medication and electroconvulsive therapy, a number of different psychological interventions are useful in treating mood disorders. Two approaches that have garnered considerable empirical support, particularly for depression, include cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy.Identify negative cognitive schemas that are triggering maladaptive thinking errorsKristen recently started interpersonal psychotherapy for depression. If she and her therapist identify a key dispute Kristen has with her parents that seems to precipitate or cause the depression, what will the therapist likely do next?Help Kristen determine the stage of the disputeRelapse in bipolar disorder often correlates with family ________. Individuals with bipolar disorder who receive a family-focused treatment with their medication experience __________ those who receive crisis management training.tension , less relapse thanA young married couple, both suffering from depression after the death of their infant son, visit a counselor to help them cope with their loss.Interpersonal psychotherapyA woman with major depressive disorder is encouraged to record her negative thoughts and to question how realistic and accurate they are.Cognitive therapyA woman who entered a major depressive episode shortly after retiring from a very successful career in law talks to a mental health professional about how to transition into her new role and lifestyle.Interpersonal psychotherapyA young man with depression is asked to carefully monitor his moods, thoughts, and activities for a week, and then he and his therapist will develop a plan to help him better regulate his mood and activities.Self-control therapyWomen attempt suicide ________ as often as men, while men are _______ more likely to commit suicide than women.3 times, 4 timesSuicidal ideationHaving thoughts about and seriously considering suicideSuicidal planKnowing which method you will use to commit suicideSuicidal attemptInjuring yourself with the intent to dieAltruisticApproved of or demanded by societyAnomicCaused by a marked disruption or severe upset in lifeEgoisticProvoked by a complete or perceived lack of social supportFatalisticCaused by a person's loss of control over his or her life or destinyWhich of the following indices of suicidal behavior are evident in this scenario? Check all that apply.-Suicidal plan -Suicidal ideation -Suicidal attemptWhich of the following risk factors for suicide are clearly present in Alyssa's case?Family history of suicide, psychological disorder, and substance abuseInterpersonal therapy (IPT) focuses on resolving problems in existing relationships and learning to form new interpersonal relationships. It is highly structured and rarely takes more than ______ sessions.15 to 20Of the two forms of unipolar depression (major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder), the lifetime prevalence for both combined is about ___ percent of the general population.3.5Mario has suffered from bipolar I disorder for several years, and his family has taken him to a psychiatrist for evaluation. The psychiatrist correctly identifies the disorder and recommends that in addition to some psychotherapy Mario start taking lithium carbonate to help with his symptoms. Mario is happy to have this opportunity, but should also be aware that one of the side effects of taking this drug isdecreased functioning of his thyroid gland.John works as an auto mechanic, and while he is competent is not the "tops" in his field. During a particularly active period he starts feeling very good about himself, talking quickly, and making decisions without considering the long-term consequences they will bring. He quits his stable job as a mechanic and goes home to call the various NASCAR teams, certain that they will hire him to be an all-star mechanic on the national racing circuit. When he does not get a job within a few hours, he descends into misery during which time he hates himself, refuses to get out of bed, and contemplates suicide. From which of the following conditions does John appear to suffer?bipolar IMartin has a very unusual pattern to his symptoms of major depression. They tend to show up in the later months as fall approaches and become particularly difficult during the winter months. When spring arrives, his symptoms always seem to get better and go away rather quickly. Martin might best be diagnosed as suffering frommajor depression, seasonal pattern.In very severe cases of major depressive disorder where the symptoms last for ___ years or longer, approximately 38% of patients can be expected to eventually recover.5Joshua is experiencing a manic episode, but he has a wide variety of symptoms. Although he sometimes feels very good about himself and "high on the world," he sometimes feels sad and anxious at the same time. He finds it hard to explain to his therapist how he can feel both good and bad at the same time. Joshua is experiencing a manic episode with ________ features.mixedWith regard to the different mood disorders, the diagnosis that would be marked by the symptoms with the lowest level of severity would becyclothymic disorder.Why is suicide such a significant problem in Native Americans as opposed to other racial/ethnic groups?Because of the high rate of depression in Native AmericansThe antidepressant medications known as tricyclics include all but which of the following drugs?ZoloftJack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to "normal." In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as having the symptoms of persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia). Jack's condition is referred to as _______________.double depressionWhich of the following is characteristic of the sleep of depressed patients?They have a shorter period of sleep time before entering a REM stage.The catatonic specifier for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPThypersomnia or insomniaProfessor Davidson conducts his Social Philosophy class during the fall semester, and at the end of the term he is reviewing the evaluations he received from his students. Of the 30 students in his class two of them gave him negative evaluations, three of them gave neutral assessments, and 25 of them raved about how wonderful the class was. Professor Davidson completely disregards the 25 good and 3 neutral reports, and focuses only on the 2 negative ones. When he is done is feeling very unhappy and is sure that the class would be considered a failure. According to Aaron Beck, Professor Davidson is engaging in a cognitive error called ________.arbitrary inferenceWhich of the following is TRUE about a hypomanic manic episode?It is not necessarily problematic.Current research into neurotransmitter systems has produced the "________" hypothesis, which states that when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities.permissive________ theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives is called the learned helplessness theory.Martin Seligman'sPrior to the DSM-III-R, conditions that are currently characterized as ________ disorders were referred to by several different names, including depressive disorders, affective disorders, and depressive neuroses.moodCharles suffers from bipolar I disorder and his physician has given him a prescription for lithium carbonate. Charles takes the medication for several months and sees a significant reduction in his mood swings. He decides, however, to stop taking the medication. This is a problem seen in many people on lithium carbonate to stabilize mood in bipolar disorder. Why does this happen?They miss the euphoric feelings that mania produces.Suicide associated with bipolar disorder is most likely to occur when the symptomsare of the rapid-cycling type.Dr. Klein is recruiting participants for her next study on eating disorders and expects the makeup of her sample to mirror trends found in the prevalence rates for eating disorders. As a result, Dr. Klein expects fewer ______ will compose the participant group.menFor a person to be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, two aspects of binge eating must be observed. Of the following scenarios, select the one that includes both aspects:Alex has already eaten a hamburger with four patties, a chocolate shake, and an order of french fries. He is now eating a second order of french fries, uncontrollably shoving handfuls of them in his mouth.The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) also distinguishes between two specific types of bulimia nervosa. For a clinician to indicate the presence of the nonpurging type of bulimia nervosa, a patient must exhibit __________ to compensate for calories consumed.excessive exerciseNo matter the purging technique utilized, medical consequences will likely follow. Select which of the following consequences is likely for the person using the purging technique of vomiting. Check all that apply.-Below normal body fat levels -Renal failure -A disrupted heartbeatWhich statement best describes the effectiveness of most purging techniques?Most fail miserably, as they do not get rid of calories consumed or cause a reduction in body fat.People with anorexia nervosa are just as fearful as people with bulimia nervosa of gaining weight and losing control over their eating habits. However, people with bulimia are _________ of their diet.ashamedBecky was specifically diagnosed with the binge-eating/purging type of anorexia nervosa. Which of the following statements most likely characterizes her eating habits?I get nervous if I go a single day without taking a laxative. I usually carry one in my pocket at all times and will take it if I overindulge in eating. Today I had to take it after I ate a spoonful of peanut butter.Becky's eating habits illustrate how the binge-eating/purging behavior of people diagnosed with anorexia nervosa differs from people diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, specifically in that Becky binges on _______________- .smaller amounts of foodWhen Becky went to the doctor most recently, her weight was 23% below what was expected for her height and build. With Becky's diagnosis, which of the following statements most likely characterize the way she feels about herself? Check all that apply.-I can still see some fat on my arms. -I agree that I look like I am really sick. -If I eat more food I am going to become obese.Dr. White is recruiting participants for a study on bulimia. If he expects his participant group to follow the trends found in the prevalence rates for bulimia, the male participants will be ______ than the female participants.olderPrevalence rates for eating disorders also reflect cultural themes. Which factor most likely contributes to the prevalence rate of anorexia found in African American women?African American women have less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women.Beyond cultural considerations, critical periods in development are also known to influence the prevalence of eating disorders. The ________ changes that young women experience during puberty are likely to cause them to develop characteristics that are ____________ the characteristics ascribed to the ideal body type for their gender.physical, opposite ofIn their experiment, a woman that rated her current body type as a 5, would most likely have indicated that it is her belief that men find the number3 body type most attractive. These findings support the notion that women believe their current body type is __________ than the body type men find most attractive.heavierTo account for these gender differences, researchers have found the strongest connection with cultural and social factors, especially those portrayed by the media. Which of the following is an example of how social factors influence these differences in body image?Women portrayed on television are often on a diet and make negative comments about their body image.Researchers have found that genetics account for up to 50% of the causes of eating disorders, with the inheritance of ________ potentially making it more likely for a person to have a __________________ .perfectionism, need for order and controlCarlos reports that when he is not binging, he doesn't really eat much. Based on the current consensus surrounding the relationship between neurobiological abnormalities and eating disorders, which of the following statements applies to Carlos?Abnormal serotonin levels are a result of disordered eating and also maintain it.As with all disorders, an integrative model provides the most comprehensive understanding of how a disorder develops. Select the statement that accurately describes this model in the context of eating disorders.Analyzing the interaction of social, biological, and psychological factors provides a comprehensive understanding of how eating disorders develop.Drugs that have been proven effective for treating certain types of eating disorders are also effective at treatingmood and anxiety disordersPsychological treatment for bulimia nervosa is most successful when a series of stages is implemented in a specific order. Select the treatment approach that incorporates the stages and sequence recommended.Your treatment will start with an introduction to how ineffective purging is at compensating for caloric intake. You will also be eating smaller meals at least every three hours, with social activities scheduled afterward. Next, we will focus on altering your current feelings about body image and weight.Deborah, a 15-year-old diagnosed less than a year ago with restricting type anorexia nervosa, has restored her weight and is starting cognitive therapy. Select the statement that describes a component of cognitive therapy that will be most effective for preventing relapse in a case like Deborah's.I understand that thinness is not a sign of self-worth, and thankfully my family agrees.If Brian, a 6'0" adult, is considered obese, he must weigh at least 220 pounds, increasing his ________ rate by 30% .mortalityA majority of Brian's weight comes from his suffering from night eating syndrome. Select the scenario that accurately characterizes this syndrome.Waking up at least once in the middle of the night to eat a high-calorie snack, without the guise of sleep to blame.The medical costs and consequences associated with obesity have caused widespread research into its causes, spawning a plethora of treatment strategies. One of the main contributors to obesity has been found to be a __________. For the most severe cases of obesity, ________ intrusive forms of treatment are suggested.high- fat, energy-dense diet; moreThere are two major categories of sleep disorders: dyssomnias and parasomnias. Which of the following statements characterizes dyssomnias?I repeatedly cannot fall asleep until 3:00 AM. This only makes for a tired day at work and frustration when I am desperately trying to fall asleep at night.Each of the previous statements is an example of a sleep disorder. Statement 1 is an example of ____________ , whereas Statement 2 is an example of __________ .Nightmare disorder, insomnia disorderResearchers have been able to identify and categorize different types of sleep disorders from years of research. Suppose Dr. Gaffney is one of these sleep researchers and has been recording respiration, oxygen desaturation, brain-wave activity, and muscle movements for a number of participants in her sleep laboratory. She is gathering her data through the use ofa polysomnographic evaluationOne of the most common sleep disorders is insomnia disorder. A diagnosis of insomnia disorder applies not only to people who have trouble falling asleep but also to those who find it difficult to stay asleep and who do not wake feeling refreshed after a reasonable amount of sleep. Almosta ________ of the population reports experiencing symptoms of insomnia disorder in any given year.ThirdResearchers have found that people with sleep difficulties develop cycles of behavior that perpetuate the existence of insomnia disorder. Complete the diagram so that it illustrates one of these cycles: Start to experience _________disrupted sleepA supporter of the integrative model would argue that poor bedtime habits, or _________ such as alcohol use, interact with biological and psychological factors to maintain disrupted sleep.Sleep stressAll forms of treatment for sleep disorders have the common goal of restoring a person's sleep to a healthy level. Medical treatments for people with _________ often include one of several benzodiazepines (Halcion, Ambien), ideally of the _________ category, to reduce daytime sleepiness.Insomnia, short-actingI know you are here for help in falling asleep, but I want you to try to do everything in your power to lie in bed at night and stay awake. Try this for a week and report back to me how this affected your falling asleep. This is an example of:paradoxical intentionSomnambulism, a specific type of parasomnia, occurs during _______ sleep, indicating that people _______ acting out a dream while sleepwalking.NREM, are notThe nightmares that characterize nightmare disorder are different than the bad dreams most people experience. Identify which of the following scenarios includes details that characterize nightmare disorder.Scenario 1: Last night I was dreaming about being in a plane that was falling from the sky, and when my cries finally woke me up, I was thankfully, instantly aware that I was no longer on the plane. However, I was still experiencing intense panic.Hypersomnolence is diagnosed when a person exhibits excessive sleep, _______ .Finding it personally distressingEileen was mad to find her car had been hit by another person in the parking lot, causing brief loss of muscle tone in her face and arms. This is an example ofcataplexy, a component of narcolepsyInterrupted or restricted breathing associated with breathing-related sleep disorders can also cause disrupted sleep and daytime sleepiness. Extreme cases involve short periods in which a person may stop breathing altogether, referred to as sleep apnea. If the cessation of breathing is due to a complete lack of respiratory activity, a person is experiencing _______Central sleep apneaJody regularly engages in binge-eating episodes, and clearly suffers from an eating disorder. How would you determine if her diagnosis should be bulima nervosa or binge-eating disorder?d. If it is bulimia nervosa, Jody's binge-eating episodes will be followed by some sort of compensatory behaviors to get rid of the calories she consumed. If it is binge-eating disorder, she will not.pproximately 20% to 30% of anorexia nervosa-related deaths are due to ________, which is 50 times higher than the risk of death from the same cause in the general population.suicideWhich of the following potentially fatal medical conditions is not a known consequence of the electrolyte imbalances that can occur as a result of repeated vomiting that is often associated with bulimia nervosa?c. development of lanugoSally has suffered from anorexia nervosa since she was a teenager. Now in her mid-twenties, which of the following behaviors might she demonstrate that is frequently associated with this eating disorder?b. Sally hoards food in her room and although she doesn't eat it she looks at it from time to time.Donte has been having difficulty with sleeping and feeling rested lately. His doctor decides to send him for a polysomnographic evaluation to assess different physical functions that are occurring during his sleep time. One of them, called an ________, will measure the eye movements that take place during his sleep and this will help determine whether or not he is entering a REM stage while he sleeps and, if so, for how long.c. electrooculogramMillicent sits up in bed several times a week, shouting and crying as if she is terrified. Her mother takes her to the pediatrician who suggests that she is suffering from night terrors. Upon hearing this, Millicent's father says, "this is probably just caused by nightmares. She'll grow out of it!" Is Millicent's father correct?. He is half right - Millicent's sleep terrors are, in fact caused by nightmares, but this problem does not go away on its own. Treatment is going to be necessary.Eden suffers from morbid obesity. Her body mass index is well over 40, and she is suffering from a variety of physical symptoms related to her body size. Her physician has been gently encouraging her to lose weight for years ,but Eden has ignored this advice. Now that her weight is causing extreme pain in her hips, knees, and ankles and is interfering with her life, Eden has decided to do something about the problem. Which of the following interventions will be the most effective at helping her lose weight and keep it off?b. Bariatric surgeryIn comparing the effectiveness of interpersonal therapy (IPT) with enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for patients with bulimia nervosa, which of the following statements is the most accurate?a. Both forms of treatment were effective and patients were comfortable with their treatment, but the CBT-E patients showed greater amounts of recovery 5 months after treatment than did the IPT patients.College men and women were asked to rate their assessment of what is an attractive body size and what is an ideal body size in both men and women. Read the following statements and select which best reflects the findings of this very important study.. Females rated the smallest female body size as idea, while males' assessment of an attractive female size was larger a larger estimate.In a study comparing the genetic contribution to eating disorders, researchers found that in ___% of identical twin pairs both twins had bulimia nervosa, while that number was ___% of fraternal twin pairs. Although this does not rule out the influence of environmental and sociocultural factors, it does present compelling evidence for a genetic contribution to these conditions.23;9Julia has been in treatment for anorexia nervosa for the past two months. Her treatment has consisted of many different features, including helping her to gain weight to get back into a health range, family therapy, and individual psychotherapy. Julia has participated willingly in all of these aspects of her treatment. Which of them will be the best predictor of long-term recovery from anorexia nervosa?. Family psychotherapyFamily psychotherapyIndividuals with night eating syndrome tend to consume more than ______ of their daily calorie intake after their evening meal.one-thirdWhy is it that people who work overnight shifts on a regular basis may have a higher risk of developing circadian rhythm sleep disorder?b. Because the part of the brain that controls our sleep cycles is directly connect to our eyes and is affected by the light in our surroundings.Check My Work A later stage of Alice's enhanced cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT-E) for bulimia will likely involved. altering dysfunctional thoughts about body shape, weight, and eatingErrol suffers from bulimia nervosa and is currently receiving treatment for it. His clinician has read the existing research on the use of medications, and has found that a particular type of drug is of use during the bingeing and purging cycle of this disorder. Which of the following types of medication will Errol be asked to take?b. An antidepressantAn analysis of which type of television show that runs during prime-time hours found that 12% of the female characters were depicted as dieting and making disparaging remarks about their body image?b. situation comediesRudy has a problem getting to his morning classes in college and it has been going on for more than half of the semester. Although he goes to bed by 11 pm every night, he often does not wake up until at least 9 am, and on these days he misses his 8 am course. His roommate has suggested just dropping the course and signing up for later classes, but Rudy is bothered because he usually does not feel well-rested even after a night of so much sleep. Which of the following is accurate for Rudy's case?b. Rudy should be diagnosed with hypersomnolence disorder.Some people who suffer from narcolepsy experience a sudden loss of muscle tone, a condition called ________. This can be very dangerous, as a person can hurt themselves during such episodes.cataplexyWhich of the following is the best argument for increasing taxes on unhealthy food products, such as sweetened soft drinks and fatty snack foods?b. The obesity epidemic is one of the greatest threats to health in recent history, and steps must be taken to address this problem.Because societal messages promoting thinness as ideal for girls are received even in early childhood, your authors note that by the age of ________ years as many as 20% of girls report that they are trying to lose weight.9The field of behavioral medicine is _____________ focused on applying knowledge from behavioral science to medical problems. It is typically said to include the subfield of ____________.an interdisciplinary field, health psychologyThere are two distinct ways in which psychological and social factors can affect health. Which of the following scenarios clearly illustrates both of these ways?A new type of sexually transmitted disease that is highly contagious is discovered. Individuals who have unprotected sex are particularly vulnerable to the disease, and the disease appears to progress more rapidly for people who experience chronic stress.The organism recognizes and begins to respond to an immediate threat.Alarm reaction stageThe organism initializes coping mechanisms to respond to the stress.stage of resistanceThe organism experiences permanent physiological damage.stage of exhaustionResearch suggests that the high levels of cortisol produced by chronic stress can damage the hippocampus. What effect does this have on the amount of cortisol released?Cortisol levels remain high longer.Psychological and social factors play important roles in stress physiology. In his study of baboons, Robert Sapolsky found sense of control to be key to the stress response, with submissive males showing _________ resting levels of cortisol than dominant males. In humans, the feelings of stress, anxiety, excitement, and depression share important physiological features, but sense of control remains important. If you feel there is little you can do about an immediate challenge, for example, you are likely to feel __________ .higher, anxietyResponding to stress requires energy from your body. Unfortunately, this energy is often removed from the immune system, which can reduce your body's ability to fight against disease and lead to more severe illness.Low stress decreases immune system functioning. You cannot decisively state that stress causes illness. The correlation between severity of illness and stress is stronger than the relationship illustrated on the previous graph. The true relationship between severity of illness and stress is more modest than the relationship illustrated on the previous graph.B cells and T cells are both involved in the adaptive immune response. In the following table, indicate whether each of the three statements describes B cells, T cells, or both. Check all that apply.B cells: Are a type of leukocyte (white blood cell), Operate within the humoral branch of the immune system T cells: Are a type of leukocyte (white blood cell), Operate within the cellular branch of the immune systemWhat type of disorder occurs when a person has an excess of T4 (helper) cells and his or her immune system begins attacking healthy cells rather than just antigens?Autoimmune diseaseAfter becoming infected with HIV, a person may experience more minor health problems, known as ____________, for a number of years before developing full-blown AIDS. Researchers have found that individuals who are infected with HIV and have high levels of stress and _________ are likely to have a faster disease progression.AIDS-related complex, depressionPsychoncology is a new field focused on the influence of __________ factors on cancer.psychosocialResearch on the effects of psychotherapy on the health of patients with cancer has yielded some surprising results. Which of the following is among the results that have been found?Psychotherapy can prolong the lives of patients with cancer.Psychosocial factors can have a strong impact on the health of a person's cardiovascular system. This system distributes blood throughout the body and consists of the heart, veins, and blood vessels. Common problems with the cardiovascular system include hypertension (high blood pressure) and coronary heart disease. Blood pressure is a measure of the amount of force that the blood puts on the walls of the blood vessels. Say you get your blood pressure measured, and it is 165 over 100. Your systolic pressure is _____ , and your diastolic pressure is ______ . Based on these numbers, your doctor may say that you have ______________ .165, 100, hypertensionSystolic pressurethe pressure of the blood when it is first pumped out of the heart and into the arteries of the body. Diastolic pressure is the pressure of the blood when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed and not pumping any blood out of the heart. Systolic pressure is always higher than diastolic pressure and is listed first. In your blood pressure reading, 165 is the systolic pressure, and 100 is the diastolic pressure.At a routine physical exam years later, you learn that your blood pressure is 180/110. Your doctor may ask you about the amount of salt in your diet. Why would he or she ask you this?Excess salt can increase blood volume and elevate blood pressure.Systolic pressure is the pressure of the blood when it is first pumped out of the heart and into the arteries of the body. Diastolic pressure is the pressure of the blood when the ventricles of the heart are relaxed and not pumping any blood out of the heart. Systolic pressure is always higher than diastolic pressure and is listed first. In your blood pressure reading, 165 is the systolic pressure, and 100 is the diastolic pressure. Normal average blood pressure for a human is 120/80 (120 over 80). Blood pressure fluctuates due to diet and exercise, sometimes even over the course of a single day, so doctors usually consider normal blood pressure to be in a range from about 140/90 to 110/70. High blood pressure is called ___________hypertensionBoth hypertension and coronary heart disease run in families and are likely influenced strongly by genetics. Psychosocial factors also play important roles in each of these health issues, however. Which of the following characteristics are associated with hypertension and heart disease? Check all that apply.-Little ambition -Lack of control over life events -High stress levels -Anger and hostility -ImpatienceEarly investigations into the link between psychological factors and heart disease implicated the type A personality, which was characterized by being ________________ . Later research in this area showed that certain components of type A, such as negative affect and ______________, are most relevant to the development of heart disease.highly competitive, time urgencyThere are two types of clinical pain. Both types may initially be the result of an injury, but acute pain __________ once the injury heals or is treated, while _________ pain does not decrease over time.goes away, chronicResearchers have discovered that psychological and social factors contribute significantly to the development of chronic pain. Each of the following individuals tore a ligament in her elbow. Select the individual who is at greatest risk for developing chronic pain.Latasha accepts her pain and suffering without trying to change or stop itYvette has been living with cancer for the past two years. In addition to the discomfort caused by treatments, Yvette experiences chronic pain from the tumors pressing against her nerves. When asked by doctors, Yvette typically reports ongoing pain as a 5 on a scale from 1 to 10, with occasional acute pain reaching a 9. On days when the pain is a 9, Yvette is unable to get out of bed. When she was first diagnosed, Yvette attended a weekly group meeting for people diagnosed with cancer. After six months, though, she stopped going and has been growing increasingly isolated since then. In the scenario, Yvette reporting to her doctor that her chronic pain was a level 5 would be considered _______________ . Being unable to get out of bed because of pain is ___________. Finally, becoming socially isolated is considered ____________ .a subjective experience, pain behavior, sufferingSubjective experiences of painare those that are reported directly by the patient based on his or her own physical sensations. Only the patient knows and can describe the type and level of pain he or she is experiencing. The patient may express the pain level numerically on a scale from 1 to 10 or may use terms such as sharp or throbbing.Pain behaviorsare physical manifestations of pain that cause a person to change the way he or she behaves, including avoiding activities because it causes additional pain.sufferingis the emotional component associated with pain. Psychological and social aspects of pain management can help to address and ease suffering.According to the gate control theory of pain, what is likely going on when a soldier in the middle of a combat mission is shot in the leg but does not feel any immediate pain?The brain sends a signal for large nerve fibers to close the dorsal horns of the spinal column.Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a perplexing disorder with no physical pathology and no clear physical cause. Michael Sharpe has offered a model that integrates the physical and psychological factors related to CFS. According to Sharpe's model, how do people with CFS worsen the lingering symptoms of pain and fatigue from extreme stress or an illness?They become chronically inactive, which can lead to weakness, lack of stamina, and depression.Biofeedback is sometimes used for physical disorders and pain. This technique often increases a person's awareness of his or her physical state. What are clients trained to do during biofeedback?Exert control over a specific physical aspect of their bodiesPain and physical disorders are sometimes treated with various forms of relaxation and meditation. Research suggests that relaxation can be beneficial for ___________ pain and can reduce the flow of ___________.both acute and chronic, stress hormonesStanford Three Community StudyIn that study, counseling and intensive instruction combined with a media blitz was found to be the most effective at reducing risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD).Which of the following most accurately describes the type of approach Chinese medicine takes to health care, presented in your textbook?Systems approachThe Chinese concept of "looking at the whole" when addressing dysfunctional states or chronic illnesses, according to your textbook, seeks to do all of the following except: -Employ sustained meditation to heal the body -Improve the ability of the body to maintain its balance and flow -Restore the patient's balance and flow -Increase the ability of the body to adaptEmploy sustained meditation to heal the bodyWhich of the following statements best reflects the message of how Eastern and Western medicine might effectively integrate in providing health care?While Western medicine can deal with a patient's crisis and keep the patient alive, concepts and approaches from Chinese medicine can help restore the patient's balance.There are many reasons a patient might not opt to undergo medical interventions. Which of the following statements most accurately describes a reason, why a patient might not seek medical intervention?The discomfort and pain of the medical intervention is greater than the likelihood of the effectiveness of the intervention.Which of the following individuals is experiencing vascular pain?Lori, who experiences regular headaches because of enlarged blood vessels.The study of psychological influences on the neurological responding of the human immune response is calledpsychoneuroimmunologyThe field of _______ is considered a subfield of behavioral medicine and focuses on the various mental factors that are important for the establishment and maintenance of physical and psychological health.health psychologyWhich of the following is an incorrect match of medical condition and its definition?Arteriosclerosis: obstruction caused by buildup of plaque in the arteriesIn response to sustained stress, the body goes through several stages that together constitute the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), a concept proposed by researcher Hans Selye. The second stage of the GAS isresistanceRegarding the age ranges for the risk of HIV/AIDS, which of the following statements is accurate?For men, the highest risk is during their late 20s and early 30s.The effects of stress on susceptibility to infections in the human body is mediated through the ________ system.immuneIn the mid-19th century, symptoms of fatigue, vague aches and pains, low-grade fever, and lack of energy were attributed to a disorder called neurasthenia, which literally translated to "________."lack of nerve strengthResearch has shown that excessive secretion of the stress hormone ________ can result in cell death in the hippocampal region of the brain in response to chronic stress.cortisolWhich of the following is an example of a person demonstrating a "pain behavior"?Stanley does not go skiing with his son anymore because it is too painful for his knees.According to the principles of health psychology, which of the following would be the most appropriate goal regarding lung cancer?Learning about and avoiding high-risk behaviors that can lead to cancer in the first place.In an important study of cancer sufferers conducted by David Spiegel at Stanford University, which of the following outcomes was observed?The group receiving therapy lived, on average, twice as long as the control group.Why is it necessary for people who have received certain types of organ transplants to take medications to suppress their own immune system response?Because the immune system would regard the transplanted organ as a foreign invader and would attack it as it would a virus or a bacterium.Martin has been informed that he is HIV positive, although he has not yet developed AIDS. He lives in the part of the world where between 15% and 28% of the adult population is HIV positive, accounting for two-thirds of such cases worldwide. Where does Martin live?Southern AfricaDrew is voluntarily taking part in a study where experimenters cause him pain by injecting saltwater into is jaw. After the pain is established he is then given a pill to help reduce the pain. Little does he know, however, that the pill is a placebo. Which of the following outcomes would be consistent with the findings described in your chapterThe endogenous opioid system in Drew's brain will be activated and he will experience a reduction in pain.Sue has been dealing with chronic pain ever since she was involved in a car accident several months ago. According to research presented in your textbook by Compas and colleagues (2006), all but which of the following are likely to contribute to Sue experiencing higher levels of both anxiety and somatic complaints?maintaining an optimistic attitude.In the 1970s, Herbert Benson developed a brief relaxation procedure that involved focusing on a specific mantra. His work was a stripped down version of ________.transcendental meditationIn the phenomenon known as ________ control of pain, the pain behaviors manifested by an individual are determined by social consequences.operantDamon has been suffering from ________ for some time. His physician recommends a program of treatment developed by Michael Sharpe that includes increasing activity, regulating periods of rest, and breathing exercises, along with other interventions.chronic fatigue syndromeAs your textbook states, the single most effective prevention strategy when it comes to dealing with HIV and AIDS ischanging high-risk behaviors.