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Cataracts and Glaucoma
Terms in this set (67)
With age, this condition involves the ciliary muscles and lens losing their elasticity, lens are unable to bend causing people over the age of 40 to need "reading glasses" at some point in time.
involuntary, jerking movements of the eyes
Myopia (nearsightedness) Cant see faraway
a condition resulting from a refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are brought into focus in front of the retina.Patients with myopic vision have blurred vision of distant objects and therefore have difficulty seeing faraway objects.
Hyperopia (farsightedness) Unable to see close objects
a refractive error in which light rays entering the eye are focused behind the retina.These patients have trouble seeing near objects.
astigmatism (Can't see shit)
a condition in which the eye does not focus properly because of uneven curvatures of the cornea. Patients with astigmatism have difficulty seeing fine details either close-up or from a distance.
vision checks for ages 20-39
every 3-5 years
Vision checks for ages 40-64
every 2-4 years
Vision checks for ages 65 and up
extracapsular/intrascapular cataract extraction
A small incision is made, the clouded lens is removed, a replacement lens is placed, and the incision is sutured.
Phacoemulsification procedure. An incision is made near the lens, and a thin probe is placed that uses ultrasound to break up clouded fragments, which are aspirated out. A replacement lens is then placed.
A cataract is clouding of the eye's crystalline lens. The lens works to focus light onto the retina at the back of the eye, allowing for clear vision both up close and far away. The clouding of this structure decreases vision and leaves patients at risk for injury
Epidemiology for Cataracts
Cataracts affect nearly 22 million Americans aged 40 and older. By age 80, more than half of all Americans have cataracts, and they are slightly more likely to affect women than men.
Risk factors for Cataracts
Race and ethnicity
Other risk for cataracts
Patients with certain eye conditions, such as MYOPIA, or patients with previous eye injuries or surgeries are also considered to be at higher risk for cataract development.
patho for cataracts
The lens is the clear part of the eye that focuses light on the retina for precise, accurate vision. In the normal eye, the light passes through the crystal-clear lens to the retina. The lens is composed of mostly water and proteins. The specific proteins within the lens produce a chemical reaction to maintain the clarity of the lens. Alteration in the lens proteins occurs over the years as a person ages, yielding a gradual clouding of the lens secondary to the chemical change.
s/s of cataracts
Clouded, blurred, or dim vision
Increasing night vision difficulty
sensitivity to light and glare
Halo vision around light sources
fading or yellowing of colors
DOUBLE VISION IN A SINGLE EYE
Medical Management for Cataracts
physical examination of the patient and includes a visual acuity test and direct ophthalmoscope examination with a slit lamp to observe the eye closely. Opaqueness is often readily seen by the provider during an examination. The most effective treatment of cataracts is surgical removal of the opaque lens.
NRSG DX for cataracts
• Disturbed visual sensory perception secondary to opacity of the eye lens
• Risk for injury due to clouding of visual fields
• Anxiety related to inability to clearly see objects in visual fields
Pre op teaching for cataracts
1.Administer eye drops.
Mydriatic (dilating) and cycloplegic (paralyze ciliary muscles to keep the eye dilated) eye drops are often prescribed in preparation for surgery.
2.Exact preoperative instructions to be obtained from the provider, including NPO status, administration of preoperative eye drops, arrangements for a friend or family member to drive the patient home.
POST OP Teaching for Cataract Surgery
During the first 24 to 48 hours following cataract surgery, patients should take the following precautions:
• Do not rub or apply pressure to eye.
• Avoid sneezing, coughing, bending over, vomiting, or lifting objects heavier than 5 lb.
• Prevent constipation (straining to have a bowel movement increases IOP and can cause bleeding).
• Contact the physician immediately for severe pain, visual change, or increase in eye discharge.
• Avoid eye straining.
• Follow provider's instructions for eye dressing and use of eye shield at bedtime.
• Wipe excess tearing from inner to outer canthus with a clean soft tissue.
• Glasses must be worn if lens implant not inserted by the surgeon.
Place bed at 35-45 degree angle
Position on back or non-op side
A patient is diagnosed with normal tension glaucoma. Which physiological abnormality is most likely observed in this patient?
Damage to the fragile optic nerve.
A 20-year-old patient reports blurred vision of near objects and feeling eye strain after reading. Which condition does the patient most likely have?
Hyperopia (Blurred vision of near objects)
Which patient is at the highest risk for the development of cataracts?
Patient exposed to UV light.
The nurse is performing regular eye assessment in a 50-year-old patient. Which assessment finding indicates to the nurse that the patient requires further evaluation?
The patient reports persistent sensitivity to light
The nurse is performing an eye assessment in a 45-year-old patient. Which report from the patient should cause the nurse to notify the primary healthcare provider?
My peripheral vision is decreased. Indicates glaucoma
The nurse is teaching about the care plan of a patient with an eye infection. Which statement indicates effective understanding?
Wash your hands before and after instilling eye drops
Which physiological change in a patient is associated with presbyopia?
Loss of lens and ciliary muscle elasticity
Which test is most likely to help the primary healthcare provider to evaluate the extent of opacity present in a patient with cataracts?
slit lamp examination
A patient reports inability to see objects placed at a distance. Which condition does the patient most likely have?
Myopia ( cant see far away)
Which visual acuity disorder results from an eyeball that is too long, thus allowing the focused image to fall in front of the retina?
Rationale: Myopia, or near sightedness, is the disorder that results from an eyeball that is too long. When the eyeball is too long, it allows the focused image to fall in front of the retina.
s/s of astigmatism
Headache, blurred vision at all distances, feeling of fatigue or eye strain
S/S of presbyopia
Holding reading material far away so that letters are clear, blurred vision at normal reading distance, feeling of eye strain or headaches after reading or doing close work (may also occur with myopia and hyperopia)
S/S Hyperopia (farsightedness)
Blurred vision when looking at close-up objects, aching eyes or feeling of eye strain, headache during reading
S/S Myopia (nearsightedness)
Blurred vision when looking at distant objects, headaches, feeling of eye strain, squinting when looking at objects more than a few feet away
Race and ethnicity r/t cataracts
African Americans have twice the risk of Caucasians. Hispanic Americans are also noted to have a higher risk than Caucasians.
Cataract surgery outcome
Cataract surgery improves vision in up to 95% of patients and prevents blindness.
Diabetes mellitus R/T cataracts
Patients with diabetes, both type 1 and type 2, are at a higher risk for developing cataracts and are more likely to develop them at a younger age. It is thought that these cataracts are due to elevated blood glucose levels. Patients with certain eye conditions, such as myopia, or patients with previous eye injuries or surgeries are also considered to be at higher risk for cataract development.
Autoimmune diseases r/t cataracts
Patients with autoimmune diseases are also thought to have a higher risk of developing cataracts because of their chronic steroid use.
Eye conditions related to cataracts
Patients with certain eye conditions, such as myopia, or patients with previous eye injuries or surgeries are also considered to be at higher risk for cataract development.
Environmental factors r/t cataracts
Long-term lead exposure is known to cause an increased risk for cataract development similar to an increased exposure to sunlight.
External layer providing the tough protective layer of the eye
middle coat of the eyeball; includes the iris, ciliary body, and choroid
innermost layer, converts light waves into nerves impulses resulting in visual reception.
the clear fluid, similar to water, found in the anterior chamber of the eye. Helping to maintain pressure and nourishing the cornea and lens with oxygen and nutrients, this fluid drains back into the circulation through the canals of Schlemm.
Canals of Schlemm
are located around the perimeter of the iris, and they allow aqueous fluid to drain back into the bloodstream. The meshwork located along the canals of Schlemm regulates the eye's internal pressure.
eye damage prevention
protective eye wear
Anyone can develop glaucoma, and according to the World Health Organization, it is noted as a leading cause of blindness in the world. it is estimated that as many as 2.2 million Americans have been diagnosed with glaucoma, and approximately another 2 million people have the disease without knowing it.
is not just a single eye disease but a group of eye conditions that present with increased IOP and result in damage to the optic nerve, leading to loss of vision. High IOP, greater than 21 mm Hg, is most often the culprit. Increased IOP can be the result of inadequate draining of aqueous humor from the canal of Schlemm, or it can be caused by an overproduction of aqueous humor. Early diagnosis is a key factor in minimizing or preventing visual loss.
• Physical assessment via ophthalmoscope and use of a tonometer
Bulging vessels in the internal eye can also be seen on examination with an ophthalmoscope.
• Diagnostic results
Intraocular pressures registering above the expected 10 to 22 mm Hg are a common finding. Visual acuity tests yield decreases in visual acuity.
• Visual acuity
Visual acuity tests yield decreases in visual acuity. The patient may describe fogginess of vision.
Assessment and Analysis of Glaucoma
primary open angle glaucoma
Primary open angled glaucoma: 90% of cases. Outflow of aqueous humor is decreased in trabecular meshwork, becomes clogged like a sink
Develops slowly and without symptoms, no pain or pressure, pt usually doesn't notice until peripheral vision is compromised. tunnel vision in advanced cases.
angle closure glaucoma
Angle-closure glaucoma is also known as acute glaucoma or narrow-angle glaucoma. In this relatively rare form of glaucoma, the eye pressure rises very quickly.
S/S of angle closure glaucoma
include headaches, eye pain, nausea, rainbows around lights at night, and very blurred vision. This form of glaucoma is a medical emergency and requires prompt medical intervention. Eye drops are usually instilled immediately to try to reduce the rising IOP.
Normal tension glaucoma
optic nerve damage despite normal IOP.it is believed to occur either because of a fragile optic nerve (a condition that might be inherited) or a decrease in blood flow to the optic nerve itself (vascular disease including vasospasm and ischemia)
usually results from an eye injury, inflammation, tumor or advanced cases of cataracts, or diabetes. Medications such as steroids, when used chronically, are also noted to cause this type of glaucoma
Congenital- dx during first year of life
infantile- dx during first 3 years of life
juvenile- occurring at age 3 throughout the young adult years
Glaucoma treatment (early stages)
Medical treatments for glaucoma include medications (early stages) that cause the eye to make less aqueous humor, as well as medications to help drain fluid in the eye, thereby decreasing the pressure in the eye.
Prostaglandin-type medications (Xalatan)
Increases the outflow of aqueous humor and thus decreases volume, therefore decreasing intraocular pressures
Miotic or cholinergic agents (Pilocarpine)
Increases the outflow of aqueous humor
used in treating open-angle glaucoma. The patient is given an anesthetic eye drop, and a high-energy laser beam is used to open clogged drainage canals, thereby allowing the aqueous humor to drain more easily from the eye. This procedure is usually performed in the provider's office or eye clinic, and only one eye is treated at a time if both eyes are involved
Filtering surgery or trabeculectomy
is usually done in a hospital or outpatient surgery center under local sedation. The surgeon uses specialized instruments and places an opening in the sclera of the patient, removing a small piece of the trabecular meshwork. This opening allows for the aqueous humor to freely exit the eye and lowers the IOP
When instilling eye drops, the following precautions should be taken:
• Wash hands thoroughly and don nonsterile gloves.
• Verify correct medication/time and number of drops.
• Instruct patient to tilt head back with eyes open and looking upward.
• Retract lower lid downward.
• Invert the medication bottle and gently rest wrist on patient's cheek.
• Gently squeeze bottle and instill prescribed number of eye drops into conjunctival sac, taking care not to contaminate the medication dropper/bottle by touching the eye sac or other foreign objects.
• Instruct patient to gently close eyes.
• Additional eye drops may be administered after 3 to 5 minutes to allow for absorption.
• Application of gentle pressure with a clean tissue on the patient's nasolacrimal duct for 30 to 60 seconds decreases systemic absorption.
used most commonly with secondary glaucoma or pediatric glaucoma, commonly take place in a hospital or outpatient clinic. The surgeon inserts a small silicone tube in the eye to help drain the aqueous humor
• Disturbed visual sensory perception related to disturbance in optic nerve function secondary to increased intraocular pressure
• Anxiety related to decreasing visual field presence
• Knowledge deficit regarding the progressive nature of glaucoma
• Impaired home maintenance related to activity restrictions and impaired vision
Risk factors for glaucoma
• African American individuals over age 40
• People with a family history of glaucoma
• Everyone over age 60, especially Mexican Americans
• Medical conditions such as diabetes and hypothyroidism
• Patients with myopia
• Prolonged corticosteroid use
Risk factors specific to normal-tension glaucoma include:
• People with family history of this type of glaucoma
• Persons of Japanese ancestry
• Persons with heart disease such as irregular heart rhythm
• More common in women than men
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