AP Psych Unit 9: Social Psychology

Social Psychology
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Terms in this set (51)
a compliance method where the persuader attempts to convince the respondent to comply by making a large request that the respondent will most likely turn down, followed by the truly desired request, which is now more likely to be accepted because it appears to be more reasonable compared to the original, overly-large request.
Cognitive dissonance theorythe tendency for the desire to reduce the discomfort that is felt when thoughts, beliefs, and/or behaviors do not match up by changing one of the those thoughts, beliefs or behaviors.ConformityAdjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.Normative social influenceinfluence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapprovalInformational social influencethe tendency to copy the actions of others in an attempt to undertake behavior in a given (and often unfamiliar) situation. Also known as social proof.Compliancethe tendency to agree to do things requested by othersObediencechanging one's behavior at the command of an authority figureSocial facilitationimproved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of othersSocial loafingthe tendency for people to put less effort into a simple task when working with others on that task.Deindividuationthe loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity (mob-mentality).Group polarizationthe enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.GroupthinkA situation in which group members seek unanimous agreement despite their individual doubtsPrejudicepreconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experienceStereotypeA generalized belief about a group of peopleDiscriminationunjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its membersIngroup"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.Outgroup"them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroupIngroup biasthe tendency to favor our own group over others, whether justified or not.Scapegoat theorythe theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blameOther-race effectthe tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other racesJust-world phenomenonthe tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get (leads to victim-blaming).Aggressionany physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroyFrustration-aggression principlethe principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggressionMere-exposure effectthe tendency for liking to increase with the frequency of exposureMatching hypothesisthe tendency to develop relationships with people who are approximately as attractive as we arePassionate lovean aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationshipCompanionate lovethe deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwinedEquitya condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to itSelf-disclosurethe process of communication where a person reveals information about oneself to another, seen as an integral part of building a healthy relationship.Triangular theory of loveA theory that describes various kinds of love in terms of three components: passion (erotic attraction), intimacy (sharing feelings and confidences), and commitment (dedication to putting this relationship first in one's life).Altruismunselfish regard for the welfare of othersDiffusion of responsibilitythe tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same wayBystander effectthe tendency for any given bystander (person) to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders (people) are presentSocial exchange theorythe theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costsReciprocity norman expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped themSocial-responsibility norman expectation that people will help those dependent upon themConflictA struggle between opposing forcesSocial dilemmassituations in which actions that produce rewards for one individual will produce negative consequences if adopted by everyoneSelf-fulfilling prophecyan expectation (of someone else, not your own, that influences their behavior towards you) that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.Superordinate goalsshared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperationGRITpassion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goalsStereotype threata self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype