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44 terms

Biology Ch. 8 Vocab

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anchorage dependence
may keep cells that become separated from their normal surroundings from dividing inappropriately
density-dependent inhibition
cell division slows down as the cell population becomes denser
growth factor
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates cells in the vicinity to divide
cell cycle control system
cyclically operating set of proteins in the cell that both triggers and coordinates major events in the cell cycle
cancer cells
cells that do not have a properly functioning cell cycle control system and divide excessively
tumor
anormal mass of cells that comes from excessive growth (cancer cells)
benign tumor
abnormal mass of essentially normal cells
malignant tumor
mass of cancer cells that can spread
metastasis
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
carcinomas
cancers that originate in the externalor internal coverings of the body such as skin or intestine lining
sarcomas
cancers in tissues that support the body such as bone and muscle
leukemias and lymphomas
cancers of bloodforming tissues such as bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes
life cycle
sequence of life stages leading from the adults of one generation to the adults of the next
sexual reproduction
reproductive process involving a sperm and an egg
genome
set of genetic material
asexual reproduction
reproductive process with one parent
chromosome
structure that contains DNA made of compacted chromatin
cell division
cellular reproduction
binary fission
asexual reproduction where cell divides into two equal individuals
chromatin
combination of DNA and proteins that makes up chromosomes
sister chromatid
identical part of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell
centromere
region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids join
cell cycle
orderly sequence of events that extends from the time a cell divides to form two daughter cells to the time those daughter cells divide
interphase
period of metabolic activity in the eukaryotic cell cycle
mitosis
division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei
cytokinesis
division of a cell's cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
mitotic phase
mitosis + cytokinesis
prophase
coiling of chromatin into chromosomes, formation of mitotic spindle, fragmentation of nuclear envelope
metaphase
attatchment of microtubules to kinetochores, centromeres and thus chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
anaphase
begins when the centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separation of sister chromatids into daughter chromosomes, spindle microtubules retract
telophase
daughter nuclei form, mitotic spindle disappears
mitotic spindle
spindle shaped structure formed of microtubules and proteins involved in the movements of chromosomes
centrosome
microtubule-organizing center, cytoplasmic material of a eukaryotic cell that contains centrioles and gives rise to microtubules
cleavage furrow
shallow grove in an animal cell's surface that forms during cytokinesis of cell division
cell plate
double-membrane in a plant cell between which new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
kinetochore
protein structure at centromere region
metaphase plate
imaginary plane equidistant between the two poles of the mitotic spindle
first stage of mitosis: coiling of chromatin into chromosomes, formation of mitotic spindle, fragmentation of nuclear envelope
prophase
second stage of mitosis: attatchment of microtubules to kinetochores, centromeres and thus chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
metaphase
third stage of mitosis: begins when the centromeres of each chromosome come apart, separation of sister chromatids into daughter chromosomes, spindle microtubules retract
anaphase
fourth stage of mitosis: daughter nuclei form, mitotic spindle disappears
telophase
period of metabolic activity in the eukaryotic cell cycle
interphase
division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei
mitosis
division of a cell's cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
cytokinesis