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Cardiology PrepU Adaptive Quizzing
Terms in this set (58)
Which term describes the ability of the heart to initiate an electrical impulse?
A client reports chest pain. Which questions related to the client's history are most important to ask? Select all that apply.
How would you describe your symptoms?
Are you allergic to any medications or foods?
How did your mother die?
A client with a complex cardiac history is scheduled for transthoracic echocardiography. What should the nurse teach the client in anticipation of this diagnostic procedure?
The test is noninvasive, and nothing will be inserted into the client's body.
The nurse cares for a client with diabetes who is scheduled for a cardiac catheterization. Prior to the procedure, it is most important for the nurse to ask which question?
"Are you allergic to shellfish?"
You are working on a telemetry unit. Your client was admitted with a cardiac event and is now on a cardiac monitor. You know a cardiac monitor reveals the heart's electrical but not its mechanical activity. How would you assess the mechanical activity of the client's heart?
Palpate a peripheral pulse.
A client is brought into the ED by family members who tell the nurse the client grabbed his chest and complained of substernal chest pain. The care team recognizes the need to monitor the client's cardiac function closely while interventions are performed. What form of monitoring should the nurse anticipate?
Hardwire continuous ECG monitoring
The nurse is caring for a client with complex cardiac history. How should the nurse best explain the process of depolarization to a colleague?
Electrical stimulation of the heart muscles
A nurse should obtain serum levels of which electrolytes in a client with frequent episodes of ventricular tachycardia?
Magnesium and potassium
A 1-minute electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing of a client with a regular heart rate reveals 25 small, square boxes within an RR interval. The nurse correctly identifies the client heart rate as
The nurse is attempting to determine the ventricular rate and rhythm of a patient's telemetry strip. What should the nurse examine to determine this part of the analysis?
A nursing instructor is reviewing the parts of an EKG strip with a group of students. One student asks about the names of all the EKG cardiac complex parts. Which of the following items are considered a part of the cardiac complex on an EKG strip? Choose all that apply.
Which ECG waveform characterizes conduction of an electrical impulse through the left ventricle?
The nurse is teaching a beginning EKG class to staff nurses. As the nurse begins to discuss the the parts of the EKG complex, one of the students asks what the normal order of conduction through the heart is. What order does the nurse describe?
Sinoatrial (SA) node, atrioventricular (AV) node, bundle of His, right and left bundle branches, and the Purkinje fibers
After evaluating a client for hypertension, a health care provider orders atenolol, 50 mg P.O. daily. Which therapeutic effect should atenolol have in treating hypertension?
Decreased cardiac output and decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Two nursing students are reading EKG strips. One of the students asks the instructor what the P-R interval represents. The correct response should be which of the following?
"It shows the time needed for the SA node impulse to depolarize the atria and travel through the AV node."
An ED nurse is assessing a 71-year-old female client for a suspected MI. When planning the assessment, the nurse should be cognizant of what signs and symptoms of MI that are particularly common in female clients? Select all that apply.
The nurse has been asked to teach a patient how to self-administer nitroglycerin. The nurse should instruct the patient to do which of the following? Select all of the teaching points that apply.
Let the tablet dissolve in the mouth and keep the tongue still. The tablet can be crushed between the teeth but not swallowed.
Renew the supply every 6 months.
Take the tablet in anticipation of any activity that can produce pain.
Call emergency services if, after taking three tablets (one every 5 minutes), pain persists.
The nurse reviews laboratory tests for cardiac biomarkers for a client suspected of suffering an MI. What is the earliest marker of an MI?
The client asks the nurse to explain the difference between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. Which is the best explanation provided by the nurse?
"Arteriosclerosis is a condition that produces structural changes in the arteries, and atherosclerosis is a specific type of arteriosclerosis."
The nurse is caring for a client who was admitted to the telemetry unit with a diagnosis of "rule/out acute MI." The client's chest pain began 3 hours earlier. Which laboratory test would be most helpful in confirming the diagnosis of a current MI?
Creatinine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB) level
A client with chest pain arrives in the emergency department and receives nitroglycerin, morphine, oxygen, and aspirin. The health care provider diagnoses acute coronary syndrome. When the client arrives on the unit, vital signs are stable and the client does not report any pain. In addition to the medications already given, which medication does the nurse expect the health care provider to order?
A client is admitted for treatment of Prinzmetal's angina. When developing this client's care plan, the nurse should keep in mind that this type of angina is a result of what trigger?
Coronary artery spasm.
A client has been recently placed on nitroglycerin. Which instruction by the nurse should be included in the client's teaching plan?
Instruct the client on side effects of flushing, throbbing headache, and tachycardia.
The nurse is educating a patient diagnosed with angina pectoris about the difference between the pain of angina and a myocardial infarction (MI). How should the nurse describe the pain experienced during an MI? (Select all that apply.)
It is substernal in location.
It is sudden in onset and prolonged in duration.
It is viselike and radiates to the shoulders and arms.
A client asks the nurse how long to wait after taking nitroglycerin before experiencing pain relief. What is the best answer by the nurse?
A client who has been diagnosed with Prinzmetal's angina will present with which symptom?
chest pain that occurs at rest and usually in the middle of the night
A client admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU) diagnosed with a STEMI is anxious and fearful. Which medication will the nurse administer to relieve the client's anxiety and decrease cardiac workload?
A client with angina pectoris must learn how to reduce risk factors that exacerbate this condition. When developing the client's care plan, which expected outcome should a nurse include?
"Client will verbalize the intention to stop smoking."
Which term refers to preinfarction angina?
A nurse is caring for a client who experienced an MI. The client is ordered to received metoprolol. The nurse understands that this medication has which therapeutic effect?
Decreases resting heart rate
The ED nurse is caring for a client with a suspected MI. What drug should the nurse anticipate administering to this client?
The nurse administers propranolol hydrochloride to a patient with a heart rate of 64 beats per minute (bpm). One hour later, the nurse observes the heart rate on the monitor to be 36 bpm. What medication should the nurse prepare to administer that is an antidote for the propranolol?
A client comes to the emergency department (ED) complaining of precordial chest pain. In describing the pain, the client describes it as pressure with a sudden onset. What disease process would the nurse suspect in this client?
Coronary artery disease
In the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), medications are often ordered to control blood pressure in the client. Which of the following is a primary purpose of using beta-adrenergic blockers in the nursing management of CAD?
To decrease workload of the heart
The nurse is assessing a patient with suspected acute venous insufficiency. What clinical manifestations would indicate this condition to the nurse? (Select all that apply.)
Cool and cyanotic skin
Sharp pain that may be relieved by the elevation of the extremity
Full superficial veins
Which of the following is accurate regarding the effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke on the body? Select all that apply.
Reduces circulation to the extremities
Impairs transport and cellular use of oxygen
Increases blood viscosity
Which observation regarding ulcer formation on the client's lower extremity indicates to the nurse that the ulcer is a result of venous insufficiency?
Large and superficial
The nurse is educating a patient with chronic venous insufficiency about prevention of complications related to the disorder. What should the nurse include in the information given to the patient? (Select all that apply.)
Avoid constricting garments.
Elevate the legs above the heart level for 30 minutes every 2 hours.
Sleep with the foot of the bed elevated about 6 inches.
The nurse is providing care for a client who has just been diagnosed with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAD). What assessment finding is most consistent with this diagnosis?
Unequal peripheral pulses between extremities
The nurse has performed a thorough nursing assessment of the care of a client with chronic leg ulcers. The nurse's assessment should include which of the following components? Select all that apply.
Location and type of pain
Bilateral comparison of peripheral pulses
Comparison of temperature in the client's legs
Identification of mobility limitations
A nurse is admitting a new client with a deep vein thrombosis in her left leg. During the admission process, which information provided by the client would be a contraindication to anticoagulant therapy?
Scheduled eye surgery in 1 week
A client is being discharged home with a venous stasis ulcer on the right lower leg. Which topic will the nurse include in client teaching before discharge?
Application of graduated compression stockings
Approximately what percentage of the arterial lumen must be obstructed before intermittent claudication is experienced?
A nurse is providing education about maintaining tissue integrity to a client with peripheral arterial disease. Which of the following statements by the client indicates a need for clarification?
"Shoes made of synthetic material are best for my feet."
Two days after undergoing a total abdominal hysterectomy, a client complains of left calf pain. Venography reveals deep vein thrombosis (DVT). When assessing this client, the nurse is likely to detect:
left calf circumference 1" (2.5 cm) larger than the right.
The nurse is evaluating a client's diagnosis of arterial insufficiency with reference to the adequacy of the client's blood flow. On what physiologic variables does adequate blood flow depend? Select all that apply.
Efficiency of heart as a pump
Adequacy of circulating blood volume
Patency and responsiveness of the blood vessels
A client with peripheral arterial disease asks the nurse about using a heating pad to warm the feet. The nurse's best response is which of the following?
"It is better to put the heating pad on your abdomen, which causes vasodilation and warmth to your feet."
Which of the following is a characteristic of an arterial ulcer?
Border regular and well demarcated
Which of the following assessment results is considered a major risk factor for PAD?
BP of 160/110 mm Hg
A client in the emergency department states, "I have always taken a morning walk, but lately my leg cramps and hurts after just a few minutes of walking. The pain goes away after I stop walking, though." Based on this statement, which priority assessment should the nurse complete?
Attempt to palpate the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses.
A patient with diabetes is being treated for a wound on the lower extremity that has been present for 30 days. What option for treatment is available to increase diffusion of oxygen to the hypoxic wound?
The nurse is caring for a client who is known to have a high risk for venous thromboembolism. What preventive actions should the nurse recommend? Select all that apply.
A client admitted to the medical-surgical unit with a venous thromboembolism (VTE) is started on enoxaparin and warfarin. The client asks the nurse why two medications are needed. Which response by the nurse is accurate?
"The enoxaparin will work immediately, but the warfarin takes several days to achieve its full effect."
A nurse working in a long-term care facility is performing the admission assessment of a newly admitted, 85-year-old resident. During inspection of the resident's feet, the nurse notes early evidence of gangrene on one of the resident's great toes. The nurse should assess for further evidence of what health problem?
Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
A female client is readmitted to the facility with a warm, tender, reddened area on her right calf. Which contributing factor should the nurse recognize as most important?
Recent pelvic surgery
An older adult client has been treated for a venous ulcer and a plan is in place to prevent the occurrence of future ulcers. What should the nurse include in this plan?
A high-protein diet that is rich in vitamins
A client with Raynaud's disease complains of cold and numbness in the fingers. Which of the following would the nurse identify as an early sign of vasoconstriction?
A client with no known history of peripheral vascular disease comes to the emergency department complaining of sudden onset of lower leg pain. Inspection and palpation reveal absent pulses; paresthesia; and a mottled, cyanotic, cold, and cadaverous left calf. While the physician determines the appropriate therapy, the nurse should:
keep the affected leg level or slightly dependent.
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