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Marine Science Final Exam 2nd Semester
Terms in this set (22)
Some substances, such as mercury, tend to be found in increasing concentrations as one moves up the food chain. What is the term for this?
Which environmental factor determines why coral reef populations are found only in shallow waters?
Light is at its' greatest concentration
Where would the highest density of mangrove forests be found?
What is genetic variation?
Each individual in a population has slightly different genes
There is a correlation between algae growth and the body size of a group of marine iguanas in the Galapagos; as algae height increases for a given island, so does iguana length. Why would the body size of this population of iguanas correlate with algae height?
Differential reproduction of larger animals is favored when more algae is available to supply nutrition.
The blue lobster is a rare form that results from the overproduction of a certain protein, resulting in genetic variations in lobster coloring. What is the best explanation for how this rare variety arose?
Why are predators at the top of the marine food chain more likely to contain more toxins in their bodies?
They accumulate toxins from organisms they eat
Which event would alter the distribution of killer whales in the world's oceans in a large way?
The major food supply of the whales shows a large decrease.
What is one example of population dynamics that can cause population size to fluctuate?
The average female cod produces two million eggs in a single spawning; however, only about 200 of the original two million cod survive to age one. When cod reach their reproductive age of two to four years, only two of the original two million are still alive. What can you conclude about the traits of the two cod that survived?
These two fish have strong selective pressure.
Which of the following conditions is necessary for natural selection to occur?
More organisms are born than can survive
Which of the definitions below best defines biomagnification?
A substance that increases in concentration with trophic level
What is natural selection?
The process through which organisms more adapted to the environment produce more offspring
In the Galapagos islands, larger iguanas are more successful at reproducing and have more offspring. How would the population change if larger body size also makes iguanas more vulnerable to predatory birds?
The population would be more balanced between small, medium, and large body sizes because while larger iguanas reproduce more, smaller iguanas avoid predators better.
Why are shellfish populations often a good indicator of water quality?
Many shellfish are filter feeders that absorb toxins from the water.
The shells of some marine snails are highly variable, with some snail shells being solid colors and others having stripes. Predation by birds is a major source of mortality for the snails. Scientists studying these snails found that while 47 percent of the snail population was striped, 56 percent of the snails eaten by birds were striped. What could scientists conclude about the snails?
Birds preferred the striped snails.
Some viruses found on the ocean's surface can infect and kill plankton. How would this affect the fish population and human health?
The virus could kill the plankton population, leaving the fish with little or no food source, ultimately taking a food source away from humans.
Red tide is so named because of the red color imparted to the water as a result of a population explosion of algae called dinoflagellates. What is another term used by marine scientists to describe such a population explosion?
Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB)
Among a migrating species of fish, one individual migrates further than any other in its population. As a result, the fish develops stronger swimming muscles than any other individual in its population, allowing it to catch more prey. Will the fish's offspring be favored by natural selection? Why or why not?
No, because the fish will not pass its helpful trait to its offspring.
A group of scientists wants to test the effects of decreased oxygen levels in the water on a population of albacore. What result from this experiment would show natural selection in progress?
Increased reproductive success of individuals who have the ability to survive a variation in oxygen levels
Which of the definitions below best defines anthropogenic?
The influence of human beings on nature
Synthetic compounds that mimic the biological function of the sex hormone estrogen have been found in the marine environment. How would this pollutant be classified, and why is this a public health concern?
It is an environmental pollutant. It might disrupt sexual reproduction in marine organisms.
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