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AP Modern World History Unit 1, 1200-1450, AP World History Modern Unit 1 Vocab
Terms in this set (108)
semi-nomadic herders of domesticated animals
(960-1279 CE) The Chinese dynasty that placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts other than military.
a system of society in which men hold the power
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
Filial Piety (Confucianism)
a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors
the science of working with metals
Division of an empire into organized provinces to make it easier to control
belief in one god
A philosophy that emerged in Song-dynasty China; it revived Confucian thinking while adding in Buddhist and Daoist elements.
belief in more than one god
Buddhism in China
Spread by the Silk Roads, took form of Mahavana Buddhism. Blended with Daoism, formed 'Chan Buddhism' (aka Zen Buddhism).
a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice that can allow two harvests, of sixty days each in one growing season
The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community.
The belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have souls
Built in 7th century during reign of Yangdi during Sui dynasty; designed to link the original centers of Chinese civilization on the north China plain with the Yangtze river basin to the south; strengthened China's internal cohesion and economic development
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Developed written scriptures and an ethical code (Torah, 10 Commandments) over time.
Industries primarily concerned with the design or manufacture of clothing as well as the distribution and use of textiles.
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China; one of China's 3 major exports
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Steel and iron production
A key element during the Song Economic Revolution; helped popularize mass production and new production methods
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith (as monks and nuns)
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
the popular acceptance of an authority, like a King or ruler
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation, but also his or her position in society
third of the Islamic Caliphates of the Islamic Empire. The rulers who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphs. In started in 750 CE. It flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks. In the 13th century the Mongols displaced them.
Mandate of Heaven
an ancient Chinese belief and philosophical idea that tiān (heaven) granted emperors the right to rule based on their ability to govern well and fairly.
Central Asian nomads related to the Xiongnu peoples that pressured Han China. Organized as tribes that constantly fought each other. Most converted to Islam. Most societies sought to trade with settled people. Nobles controlled absolutely in times of war.
the rebirth of a soul in a new body.
An empire formed by Turkish and Persian Sunnis, lasting from 1037 to 1194 A.D.
In Buddhism, the path to nirvana. Comprises eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society and stresses a moral code of conduct.
For about 320 years beginning in 1206, five dynasties ruled over the city of Delhi in India. A former slave named Qutb-ud-din Aibak spread Delhi's territory and influence across northern India. He also spread the influence of the Islamic religion throughout the region. After years of conquest, the Sultanate conquered and incorporated that majority of the Indian subcontinent. This resulted in a sort of unification process between the diverse peoples of the region, but also led to a split in Indian culture, as Hindus increasingly fought against the Sultanate in the 16th century, leading to its demise.
the teaching of Buddha that emphasizes that life is filled with suffering caused by desire and that suffering ceases when desire ceases. Through right conduct, wisdom and meditation one can end the cycle of rebirth and reach Enlightenment.
mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life
A monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament, emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior.
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
a nation or territory considered as an organized political community under one government.
A dynasty that ruled much of the Muslim Empire from 750 to about 1250.
Siddhartha Gautama (The Buddha)
Means "Enlightened One." He is said to have renounced his worldly possessions and taught of a way to overcome suffering.
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
In Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors.
a Hindu movement that sought to emphasize the idea of devotion to God (Salvation); women began to receive greater importance and recognition in society
Veneration of the dead or ancestors is based on the beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, and may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living
A way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith (monetarists and nunneries)
Combines two religious traditions into something distinctly new, while containing traits of both
A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
trade routes stretching from China to the Mediterranean, which allowed for the exchange of goods and ideas from China to the Roman Empire
1 kingdom divided into 7 states that were connected through kinship, blood, or ethnic ties; had no main central authority but rather ruled each state separate from one another;mainly benefited economically from the trans-Saharan trade network
Mediterranean Sea Lanes
Trade routes that connected the Mediterranean civilizations together. The need for a sea rout for trade in the region. Trade increased and diffusion of cultures occurred
Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.
payment made by one nation to another in acknowledgment of submission, notably used by Chinese dynasties
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
A system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
self sufficient, economic structure that is the relationship between the Lord and the peasants or serfs who produced all the necessary goods to keep the manor running
the buying and selling of goods
Wage-paying rather than slave labor
A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease.
a system where the workers were forced to work based on threats, pressure, or intimidation.
These seasonal winds carried ships on the Indian Ocean between India and Africa
Feudal system, the use of serfs to work the land in return for protection against barbarian invasions
people who work to spread their religious beliefs
Silk Roads (600-1450)
flourished under the unity of the Mongols, only to lose favor again when the Mongols fell.
The common name for a major outbreak of plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century in part caused by the period of unity along the Silk Road and migration of Mongols.
Indian Ocean trading network
The world's largest sea-based system of comunication and exchange before 1500 C.E., Indian Ocean commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops.
A Malay kingdom that dominated the Straits of Malacca between 600 and 1075 CE. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes.
This place was first a Hindu (dedicated to the god Vishnu), then subsequently a Buddhist, temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world.
East African city-states that emerged in the 8th century CE from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Trade across the Sahara desert in Africa, usually in caravans of camels. Contributed to the spread of Islam.
Capitalizing on the Saharan trade routes, Mali traded gold & salt. Embraced Islam as well. notably under Mansa Musa.
During this Chinese dynasty (960 - 1279 CE) China saw many important inventions. There was a magnetic compass; paper money; gun powder; moveable type printing. Mass produced goods for trade on the Indian Ocean, experienced great urbanization, population increase, and embraced Neo-Confucianism.
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
Becoming prominent during the Song dynasty, practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and people's that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute --produce of value from their countries--to the Chinese emperor(although the Chinese gifts given in return were often much more valuable).
Chinese influence on Japan
Centralized government; Confucian ideals; architecture (pagodas); Buddhism spread
The holy book of Islam
Pillars of Islam
The five core practices required of Muslims: a profession of faith, regular prayer, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca (if physically and financially possible).
the extra tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities
(1304-1369) Morrocan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan. His writings gave a glimpse into the world of that time period.
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth, learning, and Islam
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.
Roman Catholic church
In 1054 CE Christianity was divided between the Eastern Orthodox (practiced in East Europe) and the Roman Catholic Church (practiced in West Europe). The head of the Roman Catholic church is the Pope.
A type of labor used in in feudal Europe in which the laborers work the land in return for protection but they are bound to the land and are not allowed to leave or to pursue a new occupation.
Western Europe was far removed from the growing world trade routes, but coastlines and river systems facilitated internal exchange. Decentralized kingships were established over powerful lords, with manors dominating political and economic life.
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation.
13th-15th centuries; Military strength allowed for rapid conquest. Subjected huge populations in Eurasia to Mongol rule. Their conquests helped diffuse technology, culture, and disease due to the unity brought.
The first Islamic government established within India from 1206-1520. Controlled a small area of northern India, centered in Delhi. A minority of Muslims ruled over a majority of Hindus, violent takeover led to religious tension.
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca. Also spelled Melaka.
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco. Built a strong network of roads, and relied on the mita system.
Religious syncretism exhibits blending of two or more religious belief systems into a new system
Incan system for payment of taxes with labor
The 1,100-mile waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers, facilitating trade and movement. It was expanded during the Song Empire.
System where kings give land to nobles in exchange for service (as found in Western Europe)
Language of the Islamic civilization; facilitated trade.
An arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages through the Indian Ocean to acquire more tribute states
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. It was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state (in Vietnam) as part of the tributary system.
blocks of metal or wood, each bearing a single character, that can be arranged to make up a page for printing. Improved on by the Song Dynasty (from Korea)
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader, leading to the increasing fragmentation of the Caliphate (but the promotion of science, learning, and trade in the empire remained.)
An Islamic mystical tradition that desired a personal union with God, and contributed to the spread of Islam through missionary activity.
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