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ES: World Ocean
Terms in this set (55)
How did ancient Polynesians anticipate landfall?
Ancient Polynesians used stars as a compass
Arctic, Pacific, Indian, Atlantic, Southern are big 5 oceans.
Tool for measuring the ocean depths. by create a pulse of sound and accurately measure the time it takes for the echo bouncing off the seafloor to return to the instrument.
Where is the deepest part of the ocean and what is the depth in m?
The Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, 10,994
What is the average depth of the sea in m?
What geologic evidence indicates that liquid water has been present at the Earth's surface for at least 3.95 billion years?
earth's oldest rocks
A measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
What are the eight principle ions in sea water? Which two ions are the most abundant? Why is this important to consider?
salfate, magnesium, calcium, potassium, bicarbonate, bromine, chloride, sodium *Chloride and sodium are the most important because most of it is in seawater
Where do ions in sea water come from?
streams carry 2.5 billion tons of dissolved substances to the sea.
List the four most important factors affecting salinity and the reason that factor is so important.
evaporation, precipitation, inflow of fresh (river) water, the freezing and melting of the sea ice.
1) salinity high in the latitude where the earth's great desert lie. in these zones evaporation exceeds precipitation, both on land and at se. in a restricted sea, like the mediteranean, where there is little inflow of fresh water, surface salinity exceeds the normal range. 2) Salinity is lower near the equator because precipitation is high and cool water, which rises from the deep sea and sweeps west ward in the tropical eastern pacific and eastern atlantic ocean, reduces evaporation.
a type of equal temperature at a given date or time on a geographic map
ability and space that can absorb heat
Why are the oceans vertically stratified?
Because gravity pulls dense water downward until it reaches a level where the surrounding water has the same density.
Consisting of warm water, it is the mixed layer with winds, waves and temperature changes and extensive mixing in it.
Movement of ocean water caused by density difference brought about by variations in temperature and salinity. As ocean water freezes at the poles it concentrates salt, and the colder, denser water sinks.
zone of increasing salinity.
rapid zone of increasing density
waters are dense as a results of their low temperature and high salinity
Surface Ocean Currents
broad, slow drifts of surface water set in motion by the prevailing surface winds.
What are the three Earth System factors that result in ocean circulation?
radiation from the sun, nonuniform heating generates winds, the winds driving the motion of the ocean's surface water
Explain the Coriolis Effect.
deflection of moving objects when they are viewed in a rotating reference frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the deflection is to the left of the motion of the object; in one with counter-clockwise rotation, the deflection is to the right.
What happens to the Coriolis effect at the equator?
It disappears, and shows no rotation
surface winds drive surface currents, and each layer of water drags the layer below
the average flow over the full depth of the spiral moves at 90 to the wind the reaction
The movement of deep, cold, and nutrient-rich water to the surface
the movement of water from the surface to greater depths
Movement of ocean water caused by density difference
Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Largest ocean current. The current driven by powerful westerly winds north of Antarctica
Explain how El Niño/Southern Oscillation works.
Caused by tradewinds, the eastward movement of the warm water causes the heavy-rainfall zone to shift eastward as well
Any water in a sea or lake that is neither close to the bottom nor near the shore
lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake
depth of the water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to such intensity of sunlight
How do surface ocean waves receive their energy?
by transport of energy by ocean surface waves
The depth below the surface where the circular orbits become so small that movement is negligible (length of the waves /2)
lower limit of wave base
collapse of the waves
wave activity between the line of breakers and the shore
change in direction of a wave due to a change in its transmission medium
A water current that travels near and parallel to the shoreline
a landform along the coast of an ocean, sea, lake, or river
ridges of sand starting from land and end in open water
sandy islands lying parallel to a coast and separated from it by a lagoon
constructional processes built the coastline more rapidly than it is eroded
partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
one of main coral reefs. entirely shallow backreef zone
another main coral reefs. separated simplest type found where a river enters directly into marine river
an island consisting of a circular coral reef surrounding a lagoon
changes of everyday in the elevation of the ocean surface
The equilibrium formed by gravitational pull that the moon exerts on the earth is balanced by an equal but opposite inertial forced created by earth movement
bump of water on the side of the Earth closest to the moon
Draw the periods when the tides are the highest with reference to the sun, the moon, and the Earth.
global change of sea level that may reflect a change in the quantity of water in the ocean, or a change in the shape and capacity of the ocean basins.
a rise of water lvel relative to the land
a lowering of water level relative to the land
What are the three components of the Earth's system that contribute to changing sea levels?
atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere