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Arts and Humanities
AMSCO AP World History Modern- Unit 7
Terms in this set (185)
A process of cultural change designed to make all citizens of the empire feel a part of a common Turkish heritage and society
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
A coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era.
(1910-1920 CE) Fought over a period of almost 10 years form 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.
Turkish nationalist who founded the modern Turkish state
Dictator in Mexico from 1876 to 1911. Overthrown by the Mexican Revolution of 1910.
Early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata. (819)
Revolutionary and leader of peasants in the Mexican Revolution. He mobilized landless peasants in south-central Mexico in an attempt to seize and divide the lands of the wealthy landowners. Though successful for a time, he was ultimately defeated and assassinated.
name originally given to the First World War (1914-1918).
The assassin of Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria, a member of the Black Hand
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
heir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started World War I.
A military alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia in the years preceding World War I.
Britain, France, and Russia- Later joined by Italy
An alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in the years before WWI.
Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire
Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war
When nations joined together to support each other. Was originally meant to keep peace, but instead pushed nations into WWI. Triple Entente Vs. Triple Alliance
Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
A military draft
A situation in which no progress can be made or no advancement is possible
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
a war that involves most of the principle nations of the world
Payment for war damages
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Zimmermann Telegram (1917)
secret message from Germany to Mexico, threatening to act together against America. Helps lead U.S. toward war with Germany.
A conflict in which the participating countries devote all their resources to the war effort
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.
Paris Peace Conference
The great rulers and countries excluding Germany and Russia met in Versailles to negotiate the repercussions of the war, such leaders included Loyd George (Britain), Woodrow Wilson (America), Cleamancu (France) and Italy. The treaty of Versailles was made but not agreed to be signed and the conference proved unsuccessful.
The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
David Lloyd George
Britain's prime minister at the end of World War I whose goal was to make the Germans pay for the other countries' staggering war losses
An effective and almost dictator-like leader of France, who would not take defeat as an answer
He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.
A series of proposals in which U.S. president Woodrow Wilson outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after World War I.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Treaty of Versailles (1919)
Treaty that ended World War I - most important part was the forced blame on Germany and other allies
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
Introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during the war; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation
Machine Guns (WWI)
The machine gun typically required a six to eight-man team to operate: one fired, one fed the ammunition, the rest helped to carry the weapon, its ammunition and spare parts.
ships that traveled underwater, German U-boats attacked British ships and sank the Lusitania
A powered flying vehicle with fixed wings and a weight greater than that of the air it displaces. Was used in WWI for resonances.
Heavy armored vehicle which could travel over barbed wire and across enemy trenches
All Quiet on the Western Front
(1929) a novel written by Erich Maria Remarque illustrating the horrors of World War I and the experiences of veterans and soldiers. It was extremely popular, but also caused a lot of political controversy when it was first published, and was banned in Germany in the 1930's.
A general and progressive increase in prices
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
the difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area
a rise in business activity after a recession or depression
to bring back to rightness, order, or morality
bring under central government control
in the Soviet Union, a small farm worked by farmers who shared in the farm's production and profits
A method of co-optation whereby authoritarian systems create or sanction a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restrict those not set up or approved by the state.
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
New Economic Plan (NEP)
Peasants were allowed to own land and small businesses (allowed for some capitalism)
Five Year Plan
Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the Soviet economy after WWI. tried to improve heavy industry and improve farm output, but resulted in famine
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
Russian Civil War
1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.
Spanish Civil War
In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.
a Spanish town that was brutally bombed and was full of innocent civilians it was supposed to encourage fear, Picasso painted a famous painting capturing Guernica
A seven-member committee that became the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party in Russia
A political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
country where a single party controls the government and every aspect of the lives of the people
A government of all left-wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms.
A member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.
Believed people should have political power
Those who remained loyal to the old style of France
German Air Force
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
Russian federal system controlled by the Communist Party established in 1923.
A Communist nation, consisting of Russia and 14 other states, that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
in the western Pyrenees, and part of the territory belongs to Spain and part to France
formed in 1931 after King Alfonso VIII abdicated; supported by the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War
Extreme nationalism, the belief in the superiority of one's nation and of the paramount importance of advancing it.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic president who created the New Deal to counter the effects of the Great Depression
President of Mexico (1934-1940). He brought major changes to Mexican life by distributing millions of acres of land to the peasants, bringing representatives of workers and farmers into the inner circles of politics, and nationalizing the oil industry
Fascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and Mussolini
Russian prison camp for political prisoners
Mexico's powerful state-owned oil monopoly.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I; to be administered under League of Nations supervision.
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
allies during WWII; Soviet Union - Stalin, United Kingdom - Churchill, United States - Roosevelt
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister (1947-1964).
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
movement in which Arabs sought to unite all Arabs into one state
Indian National Congress (INC)
Major Indian political party; began as leading organization of Indian independence movement
passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
March First Movement
Korean nationalist movement
May Fourth Movement
A 1919 protest in China against the Treaty of Versailles and foreign influence.
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
Authoritarian party that has ruled China from 1949 to the present
The Chinese Nationalist Party, formed after the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1912.
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
A territory in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Disputed with Israel.
After Gandhi received freedom for the indians, Pakistans, or Sikhs, moved away from the hindu people and started their own country
killing by British troops of nearly 400 Indians gathered at Amritsar to protest the Rowlatt Acts
Japanese puppet state established in Manchuria in 1931
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
As announced in 1940 by Japan's prime minister, the area extending from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies in which Japan would expand its influence
Jews who believed in a country of their own in Palestine
"Great Soul"; title given to Gandhi
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
Leopold Sedar Senghor
(1906 - 2001) One of the post-World War I writers of the negritude literary movement that urged pride in African values; president of Senegal from 1960 to 1980.
Austrian born Dictator of Germany, implement Fascism and caused WWII and Holocoust.
Great British prime minister who advocated peace and a policy of appeasement
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.
an area in western Czechoslovakia that was coveted by Hitler
Because Danzig had a large German population, Hitler claimed it for Germany. After securing Austria and Czechoslovakia, Hitler intensified his campaign against Poland.
1935 laws defining the status of Jews and withdrawing citizenship from persons of non-German blood.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Union of Austria and Germany
Agreement between Chamberlain and Hitler that Germany would not conquer any more land, and if did, would declare war
the alliance between Italy and Germany (Mussolini and Hitler)
treaty between Germany and Japan promising a common front against communism
Germany, Italy, Japan
German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
The non-aggression pact was an agreement between Hitler and Stalin not to attack each other. This allowed for German victories in the west without worries of the east.
Adolf Hitler used fascism to create this type of government based on totalitarian ideas and was used to unite Germany during the 1930s.
The Third German Empire, established by Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
nineteenth-century theories of race that characterize a period of feverish investigation into the origins, explanations, and classifications of race
Prejudice against Jews
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
Southern Pro-Nazi French; govern themselves as loyal to nazis; traitors to the Free French in N. France
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
Battle of Britain
An aerial battle fought in World War II in 1940 between the German Luftwaffe (air force), which carried out extensive bombing in Britain, and the British Royal Air Force, which offered successful resistance.
Siege of Leningrad
German forces surrounded this Russian city, cutting off supplies. About one million people died of starvation and cold weather
Base in hawaii that was bombed by japan on December 7, 1941, which eagered America to enter the war.
Battle of El Alamein
1942-British victory in WWII that stopped the Axis forces from advancing into Northern Africa
Battle of Stalingrad
Unsuccessful German attack on the city of Stalingrad during World War II from 1942 to 1943, that was the furthest extent of German advance into the Soviet Union.
Battle of Coral Sea
A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.
Battle of Midway Island
A naval and air battle fought in World War II in which planes from American aircraft carriers blunted another assault on Hawaii and did enough damage to halt the Japanese advance. Was a major turning point in the war against Japan.
first U.S. land victory over the Japanese, 1943
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
Allied invasion of France on June 6, 1944
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Battle of Kursk
German forces are soundly defeated by the Soviets, greatest tank battle of WWII
May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
An agreement in which nations promise not to attack one another
Destroyers for Bases Agreement
Roosevelt's compromise for helping Britain as he could not sell Britain US destroyers without defying the Neutrality Act; Britain received 50 old but still serviceable US destroyers in exchange for giving the US the right to build military bases on British Islands in the Caribbean.
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
"Desert Fox"-May 1942; German and Italian armies were led by him and attacked British occupied Egypt and the Suez Canal for the second time; were defeated at the Battle of El Alamein; was moved to France to oversee the defenses before D-Day; tried to assassinate Hitler.
American general, who commanded allied troops in the Pacific during World War II.
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
ships that transport aircraft and accommodate the take-off and landing of airplanes
11am, November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918)
German city ferociously firebombed by the Allies from February 13 to 15, 1945
Deliberate extermination of a racial or cultural group
Hitler's program of systematically killing the entire Jewish people
a large-scale destruction, especially by fire; a vast slaughter; a burnt offering
"Asia for the Asiatics"
Japanese slogan during invasion of Southeast Asia
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
International Criminal Court
A permanent tribunal for war crimes and crimes against humanity
Southern Slavic nation seeking independence; annexation by Austria-Hungary creates war in the Balkans; housed parade that killed Ferdinand
(1995) African nation that experienced genocide against its Tutsi population, carried out by Hutus.
a region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide
German Nazi who was chief of the SS and the Gestapo and who oversaw the genocide of six million Jews (1900-1945)
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
President of Sudan
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Christians in the Ottoman Empire, who faced genocide during World War I.
the main minority group in Rwanda and Burundi
the group that forms the majority in Rwanda and Burundi
A bombing technique that destroys a target through the use of fire; instead of a large blast from bombs incendiary devices are used to cause damage. One of many techniques used during WW2 to cause mass murder and destruction. Used in German Hamburg and Dresden and then in Tokyo by US.
killed almost 30 million worldwide, spread between military camps and to the urban population, stimulated research for vaccines and antibiotics
Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
During the middle Ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Black Arabic-speaking militia responsible for most of the Darfur genocide
Rape of Nanking
In late 1937, Japan defeated the Chinese city of Nanking. Chinese civilians were brutalized and thousands were killed. The event shocked Western powers and contributed to sanctions against Japan.
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