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Arts and Humanities
The Rise of Early Modern Europe: State Building, Science and the Age of Reason
Terms in this set (45)
The Industrial Revolution
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s in Great Britain and would drive western civilization's domination of the world by 1900. It would revolutionize all aspects of SPICE in societies around the world
(10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization by 3500 in Middle Eastern cities like Ur and Babylon.
The first industry to be industrialized in the 18th century.
Demographic pattern encouraged by industrialization. This demonstrates one of the important effects of the industrialization on interaction patterns (The I in SPICE)
One of the important consequences of the Neolithic Revolution, it was further accelerated by industrialization. This means that people are more dependent on other people and groups because of economic specialization and trade, but allows society to be more productive
English industrialist whose pottery works first produced fine quality pottery by industrial methods. He was also a pioneer of marketing as industrial producers had to find new ways to encourage consumption of their goods.
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs. Protecting property rights without interfering in trade was an idea championed by Adam Smith and gave Britain an advantage in developing industry.
The most wealthy part of the world at the beginning of early Modern History, the rise of industry allowed the small island nation of England to overtake it by 1850.
The Lunar Society
Meeting at night under the light of the moon, this British association promoted the exchange of ideas on science and technology that promoted the development of industry.
Before the development of railroads, developing these became a very important effort for countries like Britain and the United States in moving industrial products
Economic philosopher of the Age of Reason, he proposed that free trade within and between nations was better for all involved as self interest followed natural law.
Two revolutions in the 17th century established this kind of government in Britain that protected the liberty of individuals. This would be very helpful in the development of industry
the legal right to authority, it was believed to come from God and passed down through heredity in most states of Early Modern Europe
In state building in early Modern Europe, monarchs and ruling families exercised it absolutely without limits in most states. John Locke believed it was also necessary for the state to exercise this to protect and preserve society
One of the necessary aspects of the state, expanding this would lead to colonies and wars between states throughout early modern and imperial history in the west.
The process by which legitimacy and authority of a territory passes from one person or group to another. When systems where legitimacy was inherited had rival claims to rule, wars could result. Disputed elections in democracies can also lead to wars regarding this process
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
rules of conduct discoverable by reason and promote the more orderly and productive behaviors within a society
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also strongly believed in religious freedom.
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
Deductive thinker whose famous saying cogito ergo sum ("I think, therefore I am") challenged the notion of truth as being derived from tradition and Scriptures and saw doubt as the beginning of developing true understanding.
Devised a model of the universe with the Sun at the center, and not earth. His overturning of a long standing belief about the stars and planets helped set off the scientific revolution
The process in which the Western world, Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant population, overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization.
English mathematician and scientist- invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple. His belief in the predictability of nature through understanding natural laws inspired the Age of Reason
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
This was the scientist who began to study anatomy in depth. He is referred as the father of anatomy
Early Modern History
Set off by the beginning of globalization established by European exploration, it would set the groundwork for the west to become the great mix-masters of world history in the age of industrial imperialism
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method. His persecution by the Catholic Church demonstrated the need for liberty for the promotion of science
State builders of early Modern and Imperial Russia, it ruled Russia for nearly 300 years. One of its kings, Peter the Great westernized Russia and built a new capital facing the Baltic Sea while making Russia a European power
Ruling family of both Spain and Austria in Early Modern history. It would remain the rulers of Austria until World War I
Ruling family of France, its most powerful king, Louis XIV was the model of absolutism and ruled what was Europe's most powerful state at the time.
The smallest and poorest of the developing states of Europe, it needed to develop a strong military and alliances to defend itself from its larger neighbors of Austria, France and Russia during early modern history, It would later grow the modern state of Germany
Reserves of this fossil fuel in England would be one of the key geological reasons for an industrial revolution coming out of England
When men of ideas (scientists) and men of action (capitalists) worked freely together, they were able to develop this as a way to support industrial development.
Precious metal taken from this part of the world would help Europe develop global trade networks before the industrial revolution
trade in this human commodity supported Britain's growing wealth that would partially be invested into industrial enterprises
Charles I of England
1600-1649; King of England 1625-1649; numerous conflicts with Parliament; fought wars with France, Spain, and Scotland; eventually provoked Civil War, convicted of treason, and beheaded leaving England without a monarch for the first time since the Early Middle Ages
The Catholic Church
The Protestant Reformation broke the monopoly this powerful religion had on the lives of Europeans and opened the door for the expansion of government authority leading the the rise of states.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought. This policy was challenged by Adam Smith who promoted free trade as the ebst way to build the wealth of nations.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization. They opposed the mild Protestantism of King Charles I and organized forces known as the round heads to overthrow his authority and established a commonwealth under the control of Oliver Cromwell
The creation of political institutions capable of exercising authority and allocating resources effectively within a nation under a recognized process of legitimacy. While this process goes back to ancient history, it took off in Europe during Early Modern history
The Divine Watchmaker
title for god - that he created mechanism of nature, set in motion, then stood back without interfering anymore. This idea was developed though the discovery of universal laws by Isaac Newton
Declaration of Independence
A founding document in American history, it was strongly influenced by John Locke and his ideas on the relationship between the government and the governed.
Divine Right of Kings
Traditional European model for understanding the legitimacy of government in the age of absolutism
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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