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KIN 3385 - Chapter 13 pt. 1 & 2
Terms in this set (30)
Describe the functions of the respiratory system.
- Provides oxygen to the blood.
- Eliminates carbon dioxide from the blood.
- Regulates the blood's hydrogen ion concentration (pH) in coordination with the kidneys.
- Forms speech sounds (phonation).
- Forms a barrier against inhaled microbes.
- Affects arterial concentrations of chemical messengers by removing some from pulmonary capillary blood and producing and adding others to this blood.
Describe the differences between the two respiratory zones.
• The respiratory zone extends from the respiratory bronchioles down and is the region where alveoli exchange gases with the blood, and
• The conducting zone from the top of the trachea to the end of the terminal bronchioles, which contains no alveoli and does not exchange gases with the blood.
Name the level of airways that do not have cartilage.
the bronchioles do not have cartilage.
Name the level of the airways that do not have smooth muscle.
the respiratory bronchioles do not have any smooth muscle.
Describe the function of the ciliary mucus escalator.
Particulate matter, such as dust contained in the inspired air, sticks to the mucus, which is continuously and slowly moved by the cilia to the pharynx and then swallowed.
This so-called mucous escalator is important in keeping the lungs clear of particulate matter and the many bacteria that enter the body on dust particles.
Noxious agents such as tobacco smoke kills the cilia. This is why smokers often cough up mucus that the cilia would normally have cleared.
List the functions of the conducting airways.
- Provides a low-resistance pathway for airflow.
- Resistance is physiologically regulated by changes in contraction of bronchiolar smooth muscle and by physical forces acting upon the airways.
- Defends against microbes, toxic chemicals, and other foreign matter. Cilia, mucus, and macrophages perform this function.
- Warms and moistens the air.
- Participates in sound production (vocal cords).
Describe what happens to mucus in the airways when the CFTR channel is not working properly.
When there is less water outside the cells, the mucus in the airways becomes dehydrated and thickens, causing it to flatten the cilia. The cilia can't sweep properly when thick, sticky mucus weighs them down. Because the cilia can't move properly, mucus gets stuck in the airways, making it difficult to breathe.
Describe the two types of alveolar cells.
Most of the air-facing surfaces of the wall are lined by a continuous layer, one cell thick, of flat epithelial cells called type I alveolar cells .
Interspersed between them are type II alveolar cells that produce a detergent-like substance called surfactant.
Describe the forces that affect the chest wall and the lung.
intrapleural pressure is subatmospheric (below atmospheric pressure)
elastic recoil of the chest wall tries to pull the chest outward.
elastic recoil of the lungs creates an inward pull.
Calculate minute ventilation.
Ventilation is defined as the exchange of air between the atmosphere and alveoli.
Ventilation = tidal volume x breathing rate
𝐹=∆𝑃∕𝑅 (volume/time) e.g., L/min
R = 1/radius
Describe the components that affect flow and what is their mathematical relationship.
Flow (F) is proportional to the pressure difference (ΔP) between two points and inversely proportional to the resistance (R).
Under which conditions does air flows in or out of the lung?
When P_alv<P_atm, air flows into the lung (inspiration)
When P_alv>P_atm, air flows out of the lung. (exhalation)
Describe Boyle's law.
Boyle's law is represented by the equation P_1 V_1=P_2 V_2
At constant temperature V= 1/P.
Boyle's Law: The Pressure Exerted by a Constant Number of Gas Molecules (at a Constant Temperature) Is Inversely Proportional to the Volume of the Container
What is atmospheric pressure at sea level and how does it change with altitude.
- Sea level this is 760 mm Hg or 1 atm.
- Ascent to higher altitudes causes a decrease in the atmospheric pressure.
List the values of arterial oxygen saturation and atmospheric pressure at altitudes of 10K feet and 20K feet.
10K: 523 mmHg
20K: 349 mmHg
Describe transpulmonary pressure and chest wall pressure and what are their values when at the end of expiration.
Transpulmonary pressure: Pressure difference holding lungs open (opposes inward elastic recoil of the lung)
Chest Wall: Pressure difference holding chest wall in (opposes outward elastic recoil of the chest wall)
At the end of expiration:
Palv > PIP
P_ip< Patm (if this is equal the lungs will collapse)
Describe the force direction of force for chest wall and transpulmonary pressure at the end of expiration.
transpulmonary pressure direction is outward, while chest wall pressure direction is inward.
What happens to lung volume if there is a communication between the atmosphere and the intrapleural cavity? For example a stab of the chest.
Lung volume will decrease as air rushes out and the lung will collapse.
Describe the changes in intra-alveolar and intrapleural pressures, chest and lung volumes during the respiratory cycle.
Inhalation: In response to the change in intrathoracic pressure, intra-alveolar volume decreases resulting in an increase to intra-alveolar pressure. At this point, intrathoracic and intra-alveolar pressure are less than atmospheric pressure, and air flows into.
Exhalation: In response to the change in intrathoracic pressure, intra-alveolar volume increases resulting in an decrease to intra-alveolar pressure. At this point, intrathoracic and intra-alveolar pressure are less than atmospheric pressure, and air flows out of the lungs.
Name the inspiratory and expiratory muscles that are contracted during restful ventilation and vigorous exercise.
Inspiration: External intercostal muscles pull ribs up and out, diaphragm contacts, sternocleidomastoid and scalenes elevate sternum, and pectoralis minor elevates the ribs.
Expiration: elasticity of lungs recoils inward, diaphragm relaxed, lung relaxed, abdominal organs recoil and press diaphragm up, internal intercostal muscles pull ribs down and inward, abdominal wall muscles contract and compress abdominal organs forcing the diaphragm higher.
Define and calculate compliance.
Lung compliance (C_L ) is defined as the magnitude of the change in lung volume (∆V_L ) produced by a given change in the transpulmonary pressure:
Define surface tension and explain the physics.
surface tension: based on the attractions between the opposite polar ends of water molecules.
Water molecules beneath the surface are attracted in every direction by the molecules around them.
But molecules at the surface are only attracted by the molecules next to and below them. These surface molecules are pulled down and in a more uniform way.
This results in a more stable and stronger arrangement at the surface , accounting for water's strong surface tension.
Describe what is surfactant and how does it decrease surface tension.
surfactant: type II alveolar cells secrete the detergent-like substance
Surfactant markedly reduces the cohesive forces between water molecules on the alveolar surface.
Therefore, surfactant lowers the surface tension, which increases lung compliance and makes it easier to expand the lungs.
What happens to the volume of the alveolus in the two alveolus model when there is surfactant and without surfactant.
Define the different lung volumes and capacities.
Define anatomical dead space, functional dead space and physiological dead space.
Anatomic dead space is the total volume of the conducting airways from the nose or mouth down to the level of the terminal bronchioles, and is about 150 ml on the average in humans. The anatomic dead space fills with inspired air at the end of each inspiration, but this air is exhaled unchanged.
Define and calculate minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation.
Minute ventilation (VE=TVxf)
V ̇A=(Vt-VD )×f
V ̇A=Air entering alveoli per minute (milliliter/minute)
Vt=Tidal volume (milliliter/breath)
VD=Anatomical dead space(milliliter/breath)
f=Respiratory rate (breaths/minute)
alveolar ventilation: ([TV-VD]xRR)
List the partial pressure of oxygen and CO2 at the alveolus, alveolar-capillary, arteries, veins and tissue capillaries level.
Alveolus: 105 mmHg O2 & 40 mmHg CO2
Alveolar-capillary: 100mm Hg O2 & 40 mmHg CO2
arteries: 100 mmHg O2 & 40 mmHg CO2
veins: 46 mmHg O2 & 40 mmHg CO2
tissue: <40 mmHg O2 & >46 mmHg CO2
capillaries level: 40 mmHg O2 & 46 mm Hg CO2
State how much oxygen is carried in a liter of blood and how much is pumped by the heart at resting conditions in one minute.
1 L of blood contains:
• O2 physically dissolve 3 mL (1.5%)
• O2 bound to hemoglobin 197 mL (98.5%)
• 1.34 mL O2 per gram of Hb
• 14.7 grams of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood
• Total O2 in blood 200 mL/L of blood
(venous blood 100mm Hg to 40mm Hg)
• Cardiac output 5 L/min
•Total O2 carried per min = 5 L × 0.2 L
• = 1 L/min of O2
What happens to alveolar PCO2 during hyperventilation and hypoventilation.
During hyperventilation, which lowered arterial PCO2 and increased pH of the blood, the average PO2 decreased in proportion to the decrease in arterial PCO2
(above metabolic demands of the body) - amount of CO2 produced and O2 consumed.
Hypoventilation is breathing that is too shallow or too slow to meet the needs of the body. If a person hypoventilates, the body's carbon dioxide levels rise. This causes a buildup of acid and too little oxygen in the blood
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