Avian Reproduction Exam 4

5.0 (1 review)
What are the steps to fertilization?
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 190
Terms in this set (190)
What happens after the sperm penetrate the perivitelline layer?the sperm plasma membrane fuses with the egg plasma membraneWhat type of block changes the electrical potential and prevents further sperm fusion to egg membranes?fast block or vitelline blockwhat causes a change in electrical potential?differences in ion concentrationsWhat is considered a slow block?zona reactionWhat type of block has enzymes cleaving sperm receptors from the zona pellucida, removing sperm that are already bound to these receptors?zona reactionDo blocks occur in the chicken?no it does notWhat is the final stage of sperm maturation and occurs in the oviduct in mammals?sperm capacitationWhat removes carbohydrates and proteins from sperm-egg receptors to prepare sperm for acrosome reaction in mammals?oviductal secretionswhat is a zygote?the single diploid cell that results from fertilizationWhat is cleavage?during embryonic division stage, the number of cells increase but the cell size decreasesWhen does cleavage begin?in the magnumBy the time the egg is laid, ___________ embryonic cells are present on the germinal disc.20,000at oviposition, the embryo is in the _________ stage.late bastulaWhat is the clear center that becomes the embryo proper (body) called?area pellucidaWhat is the opaque peripheral ring that becomes the extraembryonic membranes called?area opacawhat are the 3 stages chicken embryo development is divided into?1. early embryo development: 1-7 days 2. middle (mid) embryo development: 8-14 days 3. late embryo development: 15-21 daysWhat are the three stages of embryonic mortality?1. early embryonic mortality 2. middle embryo mortality 3. late embryo mortalityEarly embryonic mortality is usually around _____% but can range from ___ to ____ of the eggs set.1. 2.5% 2. 1 3. 15%What usually represents 33% of the embryo mortality experienced in the hatchery?early embryonic mortalityWhat flocks is early embryonic mortality the greatest in?young and old flockswhy is it hard to identify the cause for early embryonic mortality?because many factors increase early embryonic mortalityWhat are the different classification of early embryonic mortality?1. pre-ovipositional death (POD) 2. fertile no development (FND) 3. Positive development (PD) 4. Blood formation 5. Tissue and organ developmentWhat type of early embryonic mortality has embryonic death prior to the egg being laid?pre-ovipositional deathcan pre-ovipositional death be identified?it is virtually impossible to separate from infertile egg with naked eyeWhat type of early embryonic mortality does development not begin again when the egg is incubated?fertile no developmentHow is fertile no development identified?it is virtually impossible to separate from infertile egg with the naked eggWhat type of early embryonic mortality shows the development of the extraembryonic membranes but not evidence of an embryo?positive developmentWhat type of early embryonic mortality appears as white lace over the surface of the egg yolk?positive developmentWhat type of early embryonic mortality has the albumen thickening and it varies greatly in diameter?positive developmentWhat type of early embryonic mortality shows that the embryos die soon after 30 hours of incubation?blood developmentWhat type of early embryonic mortality has blood that may be dark brown instead of red?blood developmentwhat type of early embryonic mortality shows an embryo that has developed tissues and organs but do not move or have a heartbeat?tissue and organ developmentIf the white egg tooth is present, the embryo died after ________ of incubation and is not considered _________.7 days, an early dead embryoWhat are some causes of early embryonic mortality?1. genetics 2. hen age 3. egg handling and storage prior to incubation 4. very early incubation conditionswhat are some examples of how genetics can cause early embryonic mortality?1. chromosomal abnormalities 2. lethal genes 3. primary breeder problemWhy could a hen's age cause early embryonic mortality?the first eggs in a clutch are held in the oviduct longer than subsequent eggs.What is the greatest cause of early embryonic mortality?egg handling and storage prior to incubationWhat are the incubation conditions that could cause early embryonic mortality?1. eggs that are stored above 70-75 F 2. eggs that are stored longer than 7-10 days 3. exposed to fluctuating temperatures 4. eggs not picked up often enoughwhat are some examples of how very early incubation conditions can cause early embryonic mortality?1. high or low temperatures 2. improper fumigation 3. improper turningWhich type of mortality is not very common?mid embryonic mortalityWhat type of mortality is identified by the presence of egg tooth, no obvious feather development, and gut not absorbed into abdominal cavity?mid embryonic mortalityWhat are the causes of mid embryonic mortality?1. improper incubation conditions 2. faulty breeder flock nutritionWhat type of mortality is identified by well-feathered embryo that fills the shell and yolk may or may not be completely absorbed?late embryonic mortalitywhat are the causes of late embryonic mortality?1. improper incubation conditions 2. egg contamination 3. inadequate ventilationWhat are the methods of determining fertility?1. sperm-egg penetration 2. fresh egg break out 3. candling 4. hatch residue analysisWhat is determined when sperm-egg penetration method is used?number of sperm holes in the perivitelline layer of freshly laid eggWhat is the minimum number of SEP holes required for >95% fertility in chicken?30What is the minimum number of SEP holes required for >95% fertility in quail?75What is the advantage of using sperm-penetration method?it is very accurate to determine true fertilityWhat is the disadvantage of using sperm-penetration method?it is time and labor-intensive technique and cannot be done on a regular basissperm-egg penetration can predict what?future fertilityWhat is it called when a freshly laid egg based on the appearance of the germinal disk can determine the egg as being fertile or infertile?fresh egg breakoutWhat is the advantage of fresh egg breakout?it is a quick method because eggs are broken and examined prior to incubationWhat is the disadvantage of fresh egg breakout?1. a train person is required 2. it is very inaccurate 3. a large number of eggs will need to be broken to determine fertility in a flockWhat is the most common technique to determine fertility in the poultry industry?candlingUsually broiler breeders and commercial layer eggs are candled _____ after incubation?7-10 daysWhat type of eggs are easier to candle?white eggsWhat are the advantages of candling?1. relatively easy technique 2. less time consuming 3. the stage of embryo development can be determinedWhat are the disadvantages of candling?fertility determined can be skewed because some eggs may be classified as infertile when they are actually fertile.What type of fertility determining method that use eggs that did not hatch after 21 days of incubation to determine fertility?hatch residue analysisWhat are eggs that did not hatch classified as?1. infertile 2. died early stage incubation 3. died middle stage of incubation 4. died late stage of incubation 5. contaminationWhat is the advantage of hatch residue analysis?can identify the stage of deathWhat is the disadvantage of hatch residue analysis?1. takes a long time 2. early dead embryos cannot be identified and may be classified as infertilewhat are important factors of egg handling before incubation?1. egg collection 2. egg hygiene 3. egg storageHow many times a day should the eggs be collected?1. 4 time/day in average weather 2. 5 times/day in hot weather 3. 4 times/day in cold weatherWhat is done as the eggs are collected?they are graded and separated hatching and non-hatching eggsIf the temperature of the freshly laid egg go above physiological zero (70F), then the embryo development will ______.beginegg should not be exposed to a ____________ for very long until incubation.temperature above physiological zero (70F)what are the benefits of frequent egg collection?1. improves hatchability 2. decrease bacterial contamination 3. less broken eggs 4. cleaner eggs 5. less floor eggswhat is done to eggs immediately after collection at the farm?sanitation and disinfection of hatching eggsWhat does egg hygiene prevent?bacterial penetration before the cuticle matureswhat is most popular practice in egg hygiene?fumigation using formaldehydeWhat is not a recommended way of cleaning the eggs?scraping, rubbing, and washing the eggshells because it will damage the cuticle and remove the physical and antimicrobial barrierWhat are the three storage areas for eggs?1. farm egg room 2. transport 3. hatchery egg roomHow many times should eggs be collected from the farms and transported to hatcheries?at least 2 times per weekIf eggs are not transported to hatchery daily, where are they stored?in a cooler at a temperature of 60-65 F and relative humidity of 70-75%How long are eggs stored at the farm?maximum of 4 dayswhat is used for transportation of egg from farm to hatchery?a refrigerated truckWhat can egg sweating lead to?bacterial contamination and exploders in the hatcheryon average, 1 day storage adds _______ to incubation time.one hourWhat are the effects of storing eggs?1. storage prolongs incubation time 2. hatchability decreases with prolonged storage 3. chick quality decreases with prolonged storage_____ days of storage decreases hatchability.over 7How can we prevent this decline in hatchability with >7 days storage?1. storing the eggs upside down from day 0 2. turning the eggs in cooler from day 0 3. storing the eggs in the cooler at a temperature lower than 60FAt what temperature is the egg kept at in the hens body?104-106 Fat what temperature is the egg kept at in the hen house?75-85 FAt what temperature is the egg kept at in the farm egg room?70-77 FAt what temperature is the egg kept at in the egg transportation truck?68-73 FAt what temperature is the egg kept at in the hatchery egg room?66-70 FAt what temperature is the egg kept in the preheating area?75-80 FAt what temperature is the egg kept at in the setter machine?99.5-100 FWhat is the common incubation time for chickens?21 daysWhy is prewarming of the eggs done before they are actually incubated?this avoids temperature shock to the embryo and condensation on the shellHow long should pre-warming last?6-12 hoursWhat are the 2 terms that incubating conditions provided to the eggs can be divided into?incubator/setter hatcherWhat type of incubation condition occurs during the first 18 days of incubation?incubator/setterWhat type of incubation condition occurs during the last 3 days of incubation?hatcherWhat occurs in the incubator/setter?1. eggs turned every hour 2. temperature = 99-100 F 3. humidity = 55-60%What occurs in the hatcher?1. eggs are transferred to hatching basket 2. no turning of eggs 3. temperature = lower than setter approx. 98.75 F 4. humidity = higher than setter. approx. 70%What are the different types of incubators?1. single stage incubator 2. multi stage incubatorList some characteristics of the single stage incubator.1. eggs of single age are together 2. all in; all out system 3. transferred to hatcher at the same time 4. starts at high temperature and reduced close to transferwhat are the advantages of single stage incubators?1. better biosecurity and sanitation 2. more control over incubation parameters (heat, humidity, and CO2) 3. less hatchery labor requirement 4. easier on planning of the settings 5. better quality chicksWhat are some disadvantages of a single stage incubator?1. energy consumption 2. expensiveWhat are some advantages of a multi stage incubator?1. more energy efficient 2. comparatively less expensiveWhat are some disadvantages of a multi stage incubator?1. compromised on hygiene 2. incorrect balance in loading multi stage setters can create major temperature variations. Partly filled machines may not achieve the correct temperature and prolong incubationWhat are the incubation conditions we have to control?1. temperature 2. humidity 3. turning 4. ventilation/gaseswhat is the most important incubation condition?temperatureWhat is the recommended incubation temperature range?99-100 FWhat does the temperature determine during incubation?the metabolic rate and the rate of developmentwhat are some factors that affect temperature of the incubator?1. temperature recommendation for the machine 2. eggs at the bottom trays may be cold and at the top trays may be hot 3. egg size 4. temperature of infertile eggs will be cooler than the incubator airWhat does high incubation temperature cause?1. speeds up embryo development 2. incubation length decreases 3. prolonged amount of time from first chick hatch to last chick hatch 4. chicks will be scruffy, noisy, and nasty 5. increased (LEM)What does low incubation condition cause?1. incubation length increases 2. metabolic rate of embryo decreases and slow down hatching rate 3. chicks hatched will be lethargic and sluggish 4. chicks will hatch almost at the same timeWhat does deviations from the recommended temperature affect?1. incubation length 2. embryonic mortality 3. chick qualityduring incubation, what is lost from the egg through the pores of the shell?water vaporthe rate at which the moisture is lost depends on what?1. the gas conductance of the shell: number and size of the pores, and shell thickness 2. humidity in the air around the eggWhat is the amount of moisture in the air relative to the amount of moisture the air can hold at a given temperature called?relative humidityHotter air can hold more what?moistureWhat is used to measure the RH?wet bulb thermometerswhat type of thermometer has a higher accuracy? Digital hygrometer or wet bulb thermometers?wet bulb thermometersWhat does the wet bulb thermometer measure?the evaporative coolingAs wet- and dry- bulb reading come closer, RH _______increasesAs wet- and dry-bulb reading spreads apart, RH ________decreasesWhat is it called when the wet and dry bulb read the same temperature?dew point/saturation temperature (RH 100%)What is the recommended RH range for best hatchability?55-60%What is the recommended wet bulb range?84-86%What should the RH be for turkey eggs?65%What does a high RH during incubation cause?1. eggs do not lose water like it should and drowns chick 2. residual albumen will be present 3. prolonged amount of time from first chick hatch to last chick hatch 4. shell membrane will be too tightwhat does a low RH during incubation cause?1. too much water is lost from the egg 2. increased late embryonic mortalityHow do we distinguish whether low incubation humidity or high incubation temperature has resulted in increased pips/LEM?by weighing eggs before incubation and 18 days after incubation to determine percentage egg weight losswhat is the formula to determine percentage egg weight loss?(egg weight before set - egg weight at 18 days) / (egg weight before set) x 100What is the optimum egg weight loss for good hatchability?12%What does an egg weight loss >12% indicate?low RH in the incubator or too thing egg shellwhat does an egg weight loss being the same indicate?RH is 100%Why is egg turning required during incubation?it prevents the embryo from sticking to shell membranes and aids in the development of the extraembryonic membranes regular turning will aid in airflow and assist coolingin the industry, egg is turned every hour at ______ turning arc up to 18 days.80-90 degreeseggs should be turned at least ______ to prevent killing of embryo by getting squashed between eggshell and yolk.3-5 timesif the eggs are turned >1 time in every 15 minutes can result in what?too much turning and kill the embryowhat happens if the eggs are not turned from day 1-7 of incubation?1. malformed embryos 2. embryos will be squashed between the eggshell and yolk 3. embryos that grow into the shell membrane and are stuck inside the shellWhat happens if the eggs are not turned during 2nd week but turned in the 1st week of incubation?1. extraembryonic membranes like yolk sac will stick into the shell membrane 2. embryo won't be in the right position when hatchedhow is air drawn into the setter?through a duct system and fans circulate the air within the setterWhat is the result when the fans are not working in the setter?there will be warm and cold regionsThe co2 level within the incubator should be maintained at percentage for optimum hatchability and chick performance?0.3-0.4%What does increased CO2 levels cause?increased acidity level by decreasing pHWhen is the embryo highly sensitive to even slight changes in CO2 levels?before blood formationWhat is the CO2 level in the setter during the first 2 days of incubation that will cause the death of the embryo?0.7-1%What can occur if the eggs are set with smaller end facing up?1. some chicks can still hatch 2. LEM increases 3. hatchability decreases by 20%What are some factors affecting incubation length?1. temperature of incubation 2. humidity of incubation 3. size of egg 4. egg storage lengthWhat is total incubation length mostly influenced by?the conditions in the incubator/setterIncreased temperature _____ incubation length.decreasesdecreased temperature _______ incubation length.increasesincreased humidity ________ incubation length.increasesthe larger the egg, the ________ incubation time requiredmoreFor broiler breeder eggs, for every 2.5g increase in egg weight over 50g, additional ________ is added to the overall incubation length.30 minutesincreased storage time _______ incubation length.increasesWhy are the eggs transferred to the hatcher trays?1. eggs are laid on side to allow free movement of the chick 2. assists hygieneWhat can too early or too late transfer to hatcher trays cause?lower hatchabilitywhen is in-ovo egg injections performed?when transferring to hatcher traysWhy is hatcher temperature lower than setter temperature?at this stage embryo produces a lot of heatThe temperature is decreases by _____ and is maintained at _____ for optimum hatchability at the hatcher trays.1 F 98.75 Fwhy is the hatcher humidity higher than the setter humidity?because chicks after breaking the shell are exposed to the environment and should not dry up fastWhat is the hatcher humidity maintained at for optimum hatchability?70%Why is proper ventilation in the hatcher very important?the rate of gas exchange increases because after piping the eggshell chicks start breathing by themselves and lungs become functionalWhen are the hatches pulled?when no more than 5% of the chicks are wet in the neckWhat happens if chicks are left in the hatcher for too long after hatching?they will get dehydratedWhat happens if chicks are pulled too early from the hatcher?there will be an increased number of green chicks as they are wet and will lose many chicks that could have hatchedWhat can be used to solve/determine flock fertility as well as solve hatchery and breeder flock problems, or improve hatchability and profitability?Hatch residue analysis (HRA)Why is breakout analysis on all breeder flocks critical?1. pinpoints problems in setters and hatchers 2. comparing breeder companies 3. evaluating flock or farm management 4. compiling flock histories for production, fertility, hatchability, and reproductive failureWhat are some common malformations in mid and late dead embryos?exposed brain, ectopic viscera, and duplication of body partsWhat does exposed brain indicate?high early incubation temperaturesWhat does ectopic visera indicate?high incubation temperatures mid-termWhat does extra limbs indicate?rough handling or jarring of the eggs during collection/transportmid stage mortality mainly occurs due to what?improper breeder hen nutrition because during this stage rapid growth of organs happen and this increases micronutrient requirementsWhat is the formula for determining % fertility?(number of eggs fertile) / (number of eggs set) x 100What is the formula for determining % hatchability (% hatch of set)?(number of chicks) / (number of eggs set) x 100What is the formula for determining % hatch of fertile?(number of chicks) / (number of fertile eggs) x 100 or (% hatch of set) / (% fertility) x 100always, % fertility will be greater than _______% hatchabilityAlways, % hatch of fertile will be greater than _______% hatch of setWhat gives information about the eggs that had potential to hatch and is affected by embryonic death?hatch of fertileWhat is hatch of set affected by?a lot of parameters such as fertility, storage, embryonic death, etcWhat is the formula to determine spread?% fertility - % hatchabilityWhat would spread by in an ideal situation?<10%