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evolution chapter 13
Terms in this set (89)
This person collects tissue samples from polar bears for DNA analysis
this speciation concept states that a species is the smallest possible group descending from a common ancestor and recognizable by unique, derived traits
Phylogenetic species concept
the phylogenetic species concept is useful for ___________; focuses on ____________ history
this species concept states that species are groups of potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
biological species concept
the biological species concept works well for ______________
sexually reproducing animals
this species concept states that species are metapopulations that exchange alleles frequently enough to comprise the same gene pool
General lineage species concept
a _____________ is a group of spatially separated populations of the same species that interact at some level
a barrier is reproduction leads to __________
what are the two types of isolating barriers?
geographic and reproductive
a ___________ is an extrinsic properties of landscape that prevent gene flow
a ____________ occurs when features of organisms prevent interbreeding
The formation of new species in populations that are geographically isolated from one another.
The formation of new species in populations that live in the same geographic area
_____________ can cause sympatiric speciation
______________ can cause allopatric speciation
Elk and red deer experience this type of speciation
choose 1: allopatrically speciated organisms (will/will not) interbreed
they will. they are only separated due to geography
give an example of a premating barrier
timing of reproduction, pollinator isolation
specific mating rituals ________________ for closely related animals
reinforce recent speciation events
female fireflies only respond to distinctive flashing patterns of males. what is this an example of?
distinct courtship rituals (reproductive barrier)
Monkeyflowers pollinated by two different animals: bees & humming birds. what is this an example of?
________________ occurs when sperm or pollen from one species fails to penetrate and fertilize the egg of another species
______________ occurs when mating between species results in damage to female reproductive tract and it results in eggs not fertilized by deposited sperm
Copulatory behavioral isolation
Copulatory behavioral isolation and Gametic incompatibility are examples of __________
Postmating, prezygotic barriers
when hybrids are produced but have low fitness, it is considered a __________
genetic incompatibility in hybrid offspring arising from epistatic interactions at two or more loci is referred to as ___________
_________________ are important for all species concepts
____________ are intrinsic features of organisms that reduce likelihood of interbreeding
Separation of populations over time will reduce ____________
Divergent floral traits can cause ____________ isolation and reduce interbreeding
Genetic incompatibilities between gametes can prevent ____________
Genetic incompatibilities that reduce hybrid fitness can be important barriers to ____________
______________ is the geographical separation of a population, typically by a physical barrier such as a mountain range or river, resulting in a pair of closely related species
vicariance leads to _____________
the Formation of Grand Canyon split ____________ populations
_______________ increases prezygotic reproductive isolation
when natural selection favors prezygotic isolation mechanisms that prevent the formation of hybrids with reduced fitness, it is called ________________
define Sympatric speciation
Reproductive isolation evolves without geographic isolation
what type of speciation requires nonrandom mating based on genetic or phenotypic factors?
when Geographic barriers only partially separate populations, it is called _________
in __________speciation, some gene flow is possible
Populations tend to breed with those in close __________
Closer populations more _____________
Isolation by distance causes variation ___________
across the range of the species
Selection for different ecological traits in different niches
____________Creates reproductive barriers through assortative mating
Ecological species concept
a species is a set of organisms adapted to a particular set of resources (niche), in the environment.
_________ occurs as plants started to occupy two distinct soil types
__________ can lead to extremely rapid speciation
________ species may diverge from ancestral populations without easily distinguishable morphologies
it is not possible to apply the biological species concept to ________
what species concept works well for microbes
The stable ecotype model
what species concept has species defined as 'a long-lived population of genetically related individuals that share a stable set of adaptations for the same ecological niche'
The stable ecotype model
the____________ is the idea that species are the smallest possible groups whose members are descended from a common ancestor and who all possess defining or derived characteristics that distinguish them from other such groups.
phylogenetic species concept
The __________ is the idea that species are groups of actually (or potentially) interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups.
biological species concept
A _____________ is a group of spatially separated populations of the same species that interact at some level (for example, exchange alleles).
The ________ is the idea that species are metapopulations of organisms that exchange alleles frequently enough that they constitute the same gene pool and therefore the same evolutionary lineage.
general lineage species concept
An _________ refers to an aspect of the environment, genetics, behavior, physiology, or ecology of a species that reduces or impedes gene flow from individuals of other species.
isolating barriers can be ________ or _________
geographic or reproductive
______________is the evolutionary process by which new species arise.
Speciation causes one evolutionary lineage to ________ (cladogenesis).
split into two or more lineages
________ occurs when populations are in separate, nonoverlapping geographic areas (that is, they are separated by geographic barriers to gene flow).
_________ occurs when reproductive barriers prevent or strongly limit reproduction between populations. The result is that few or no genes are exchanged between the populations.
________ occurs when sperm or pollen from one species fails to penetrate and fertilize the egg or ovule of another species.
A ________ is an aspect of the genetics, behavior, physiology, or ecology of a species that prevents sperm from one species from fertilizing eggs of another species.
prezygotic reproductive barrier
Prezygotic barriers reduce the likelihood that a _______
zygote will form.
A ______________ is a genetic incompatibility in hybrid offspring arising from epistatic interactions between two or more loci.
_________ refers to the increase of reproductive isolation between populations through selection against hybrid offspring.
_________ is the evolution of new species within a spatially extended population that still has some gene flow.
_________ is a pattern in which populations that live in close proximity are genetically more similar to each other than populations that live farther apart.
Isolation by distance
___________ is the evolution of reproductive barriers between populations by adaptation to different environments or ecological niches.
A _____ is a trait that simultaneously confers ecological divergence and reproductive isolation
_________ refers to polyploidy resulting from interspecific hybridization.
If polyploidy arises within a species, it's called ________
___________ are lineages that historically have been treated as one species because they are morphologically similar but that are later revealed to be genetically distinct.
_______________ is a species concept constructed for microbes in particular. In this model, a species is a long-lived population of genetically related individuals that share a stable set of adaptations for the same ecological niche.
Stable ecotype model
Naturalists began classifying organisms into species (before/after) Darwin developed his theory of evolution by natural selection.
The general lineage species concept emphasizes _________
the frequency of allele exchange among metapopulations of organisms.
The phylogenetic species concept focuses on ____________
the phylogenetic history of organisms
what species concept would not be useful in a group of lizards that reproduce asexually?
biological species concept
why is defining the concept of species such a difficult task?
species are constantly evolving and they are often defined in relation to research methods
a male shark deposits his sperm in a female, but it fails to attach to the egg. this is an example of what?
if the hybrid of two mice cannot produce viable offspring, is that a premating isolating barrier?
if the hybrid of two alligators can produce normal gametes but cannot find a mate, whats that an example of?
postzygotic isolating barrier
what is the most likely order of events that would lead to allopatric speciation
geographic separation, genetic divergence, reproductive isolation
Why did Mendelson and Shaw examine the geologic history of the Hawaiian Islands to test their hypothesis about cricket speciation?
they predicted that the evolution of the cricket lineages matched the evolution of the islands
T/F: allopolyploidy only occurs in plants
T/F: speciation in plants is rarely due to hybridization
why are genetic tests a good way to discover cryptic species?
grouping similar genotypes may reveal populations that do not interbreed
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