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Arts and Humanities
Leadership Exam 3
Terms in this set (43)
What is charisma?
In Greek, it means "divinely inspired gift"
According to Max, Weber, he saw charisma as...
- Refers to someone who is endowed with exceptional qualities
- Develops during a social crisis
- Emerge with a radical vision that's offers a solution to the crisis
- Followers believe in the vision, experience some extraordinary
How does the attribution theory approach to charismatic leadership differ from the self-concept theory?
Focus is on the followed perceptions of the leader vs. focus is how the leader impacts on how the followers think about themselves
Attribution theory of charismatic leadership
- The leader's Behavior
- Influence Processes
- Aspects of the Situation
What do charismatic leaders do?
- Advocate for a novel vision
- Engage in unconventional behavior
- Are sensitive to the communication
- Use motivational communication
- Use personal power
- Embrace a reformer role
Advocate for a novel vision
Charismatic leaders have a vision that is discrepant from the status quo but within a certain latitude, contain some risk, cost, and sacrifice.
(But not too radical that it's crazy)
Engage in Unconventional Behavior
Charismatic leaders often perform behaviors that are novel and counter to the norm and that exemplify heroism, personal risk, and self-sacrifice. (Example, serving for your country, notice for your actions, and running for president)
Sensitivity to the Environment
Charismatic Leader realistically assesses resources, identify and implement appropriate innovative strategies. (How they got there and the goals that people want to see that is possible to do).
The communication of charismatic leaders portrays status quo as negative and their vision as attractive. As well as emphasize assertive behaviors, self-confidence, expertise, unconventionality, and concern for followers needs. (What currently we're at and how we can/what we need to do to fix it)
Charismatic Leaders emphasize personal rather than position power (heroism) and emphasize elitist, entrepreneurial, and exemplary behaviors.
Charismatic Leaders emphasize role as reformer or agent of change.
is anyone who has the skill and power to stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate the change effort.
Charismatic attributions are based on two influence processes:
- Personal Identification
- Internalization of new values and beliefs
Influence derived from a follower's desire to please and imitate the leader. (A follower will see someone charisma and become inspired to become that other person).
Aspects of the situation
Attributions of charisma are more likely when the followers are disenchanted (no longer happy) with the social order and are experiencing anxiety or disenchantment.
Based on the set of attitudes a person holds about themselves and is made up of self-images and the evaluation of these images. (It locates charismatic effects within the followers, not as an attributional process.
What environmental factor is considered especially important for charismatic leadership to emerge?
In a dynamic work environment.
What is the difference between a personalized power orientation and a socialized power orientation?
Personalized Power (Negative/Dark Charisma) personalized identification rather than internalization. Socialized Power (Positive Charisma) seek to instill devotion to ideology more than devotion to themselves.
What are the possible effects of negative charismatics?
- Leader judgment process
- Excessive optimism blinds the leader to strategic flaws
- Risky decisions can result in serious failures
What is the difference between transformational and transactional leadership?
Transformational describe how effective leaders inspire and TRANSFORM followers by appealing to their ideals and emotions. Transactional views leadership were based on an exchange model.
How do transformational leaders achieve success?
- Create an inspiring vision of the future.
- Motivate people to buy into and deliver the vision.
- Manage delivery of the vision.
- Build ever-stronger, trust-based relationships with your people.
How can ethical dilemmas be used to assess the ethical decision-making of a potential leader?
Leaders in ethical dilemmas make decision based on:
- The Purpose of the a decision
- The extents to wish the decision is consistent with moral standards
- The consequences for self and others
What are the individual and situational determinants of ethical leadership?
Individual determinants include personality traits and needs, stages of moral development, self-identity theory
Situational determinants on the other hand are community and national cultural values and belief, Organizational culture and rewards system, follower characteristics
Personality Traits and Needs
- Emotional Stability
- Low Narcissism
- Socialized power orientation
Stages of moral development
-Self-interest, satisfaction of personal needs
- Internalized values and moral principles
- Satisfy role expectations/social needs
- Some people identify as a moral person
- This identify is most important when there is not strong consensus about what is ethical
- There is a need to balance the consequence of behavior as it relates to formal rules, policies, laws, or traditional practices.
Community and national culture values and beliefs
- Unethical leadership more likely in cultures with high power distance and low regulation
Organizational culture and rewards system
- Lack of limits on executive power (may result in abusive supervision)
- Low self-efficacy and self-esteem
- Beliefs about positional power
How does ethical leadership impact the behavior of the group?
- Leaders often try to convivence people to take risks
- Leaders may try to alter the values and beliefs of followers
What is the essence of servant leadership?
Leaders that supports it fellow followers
- Service to followers is the primary
- Attend to the needs of followers by nurturing, defending, and empowering
- May oppose the best interest of the organization as a whole
What is the essence of spiritual leadership?
Leader who increase the sense of spiritual meaning in the work
- Transcendence: A sense of "calling" where the work has meaning and value beyond any economic benefits of the job.
- Fellowship: Meaningful connections with others that bring joy and wholeness
What is the essence of authentic leadership?
Emphasizes the importance of consistency in a leader's words and behavior. (trust, loyalty)
- Positive core values: altruism, kindness, fairness, accountability, and optimism.
- Leader self-awareness: emotionally mature, and know who they are and what they believe
How does LMX theory go beyond the other leadership approaches previously discussed?
LMX suggest that leaders develop a unique relationship with each follower as the two parties mutually define the follower's role.
What predicts whether a follower will be in a high LMX or low LMX relationship?
A high LMX when a follower goes beyond to get things done. A low LMX is when a follower that does the work without being told and just continues on with his job.
What is the overall evaluation of LMX as a predictor of organizational outcomes?
- Greater Role Clarity
- Higher Job Satisfaction
- Higher Organizational Commitment
- More Citizenship Behaviors
- Better Follower Performance
What is the difference between an internal and external attribution?
Internal: It's something within the person we observe (their personality)
External: Is caused by something outside the person we observe (their situation)
Distinguish between the three tendencies people have when forming attributions?
- The Fundamental Attribution Error
- Actor-Observer Differences
- Self-Serving Biases
The Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions when explaining the behavior of others.
The perceived cause of a behavior differs depending on whether you are doing the behavior (actor) or watching the behavior (observer).
The tendency to explain behavior that emphasizes our positive qualities and preserve our self-esteem.
What are the factors that influence follower attributions of leaders?
- Results Information
- Leader's Behavior
- Leader's Intentions
- Situational Information
- Follower Characteristics
What are implicit leadership theories?
- Cognitive structures that specify the qualities and behaviors that individuals associate with the leader.
- Develop as a result of experience with different leaders and a variety of social-culture influences.
- Used whenever a person attempts to interpret the behaviors exhibited by a social actor.
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