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Factors of Production

productive resources ( anything that can be used to produce goods and services

Financial Capital

money used to buy tools and equipment used in production


alternative choices


basic requirement for survival


people with efforts, abilities, and skills


worth of a good or service


place for buying and selling a product


capacity to be useful


"risk-taker" this special labor is creative, and it refers to human ability to think develop new ideas and business opportunities as well as managing resources ( rewarded by profit)


efficient use of resources


this is when people or perhaps capital are used to whatever task they do best, it increases productivity because more can be produced using the same amount of resources

Division of Labor

division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers; same as specialization


process of using up goods and services


sum of tangible (all goods), scarce, useful, transfered from one person to another

Opportunity Cost

cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another.

Circular Flow Model

chart used by economists to show how economic systems work and how people and businesses fit into these systems.

Product Market

where the sale of all products takes place

Factor Market

where the sale of all factors of production takes place

Voluntary Exchange

the act of buyers and sellers freely and willingly engaging in market transactions

Profit Motive

the driving force that encourages people and organizations to improve their material well-being
-the incentative is your hoping to gain money


determine which products are ultimately produced, people who use goods and services

Magna Carta

This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights


the lawmaking body of British government, representative assembly in England

rule of law

principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern

limited government

basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away

consent of the Governed

the people agree to obey the laws and the government they create, The idea that government obtains its authority by approval of the people.

representative government

a system of government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government

glorious revolution

This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed. ( this showed that legislature had more power then monarchy)

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which the people are willing to give up some of their freedom to the government for exchange in protection of their natural rights . "consent of the governed" and in which the government serves the people; also said people were born with natural rights to life, liberty and property. ( supported the Glorious revolution )

Baron De Montesquieu

French philosopher wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government, and that each should balance each other

social contract

agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.

right to revolution

if government breaks unalienable rights, people can revolt and create new government based on nature laws

Mayflower compact, direct

colonist from england (pilgrims) who built a settlement called Plymouth in Massachusetts. the colonist wrote a written plan for the government and the 41 men abroad the mayflower ship the signed the compact. ( this created a _____ democracy)

Virgina house of burgesses

This law making body established that the colonists had the right to elect their own representitive to resolve local problems. (which marked the beginning of self government in English colonies) this used to be Jamestown the 1st permanent English settlement (now Virgina)


theory that a country should sell more goods to countries than it buys

common law

(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions, a body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system

English bill of rights

Guaranteed certain rights to English citizens. Introduced the concept of individual rights. (1689)

Royal colony

A colony under the direct control of a monarch

charter colony

colony approved by the king to settle

proprietary colony

a colony with a single owner, colony run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted

New england colonies

Massachusetts New Hampshire Connecticut and Rhode Island. They had a short growing season long and cold winters, rocky soil and Forests and economy was based on trading shipping and ship building. known as Puritan ethic religion

Middle colonies

New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Deleware. Economy based on farming- breadbasket colonies (grew large amounts of wheat, barley, rye, and other cash crops) settled by Quakers who believed in non-violence (pacifism) and treating Native Americans fairly; had religious tolerance,

southern colonies

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; very rural with large farms "plantations" with use of slave labor; tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown with tobacco being the largest cash crop. (grown in tidewater "flat plains"

Bacon rebellion

1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. ( this showed that many settlers were not willing to be restricted by the gov.)

French and Indian war

this struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of the North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War, (both aided by indian tribes). At the end British won the war in england wining French territory in america.

treaty of Paris

formal agreement that ended the French and Indian war and north american dominated by British. great Britain gained all land east of Mississippi r. France gained on the Caribbean, and Spain gained west of Mississippi r.

Board of trade

primary role was to make colonies serve englands economic needs, investigated the enforcements of navigation acts and made recommendations on how to improve them.

Navigation acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. (reinforced trade restrictions of colonist by use of legal documents)

proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, in order to prevent natives to fight over land.

Sugar act

halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court

Stamp act

an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents

Declatory act

Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.

Townshend acts

Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.

Boston massacre

British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.

committees of correspondence

A network of communicaiton set up in Massachusetts and Virginia to inform other colonies of ways that Britain threatened colonial rights. as a result of Boston massacre to get all colonist to act as one

Tea act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

Boston tea party

protest against British taxes in which the Sons of Liberty boarded British ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor in 1773, a protest against taxation without representation by the Sons of Liberty

intolerable acts

were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.

first continental congress

The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts. wrote in declaration of rights to run their own affairs which was sent to king George 3rd demanding it and support boycotting of British goods.

battle of Lexington and concord

The first battle of the revolutionary war and the place of the shot heard round the world.

second continental congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

battle of bunker hill

First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.

olive branch petition

An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll

common sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain

declaration of independence, government, separation

This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document. influenced by the ideas of John Locke. (3 parts-New theory of _____, reasons for ______, formal declaration of war and independence)

state constitutions

separation of power within the government and each state includes the bill of rights

articles of confederation

the first constitution in united states, too weak a central government, biggest problems include the inability to tax the states and enforce laws

shays rebellion

due to inflation they farms and veterans couldn't pay back loan so their land must be taken away. although a rebellion led by Daniel shay on the gov. of Massachusetts thought they were defeated.. this rebellion sent a message to all the states that the central government was too weak to hand the problems of the new nation


delegates were requested from the 13 states to propose _____ to the articles of confederation that will improve the central government's ability to handle the nations problems

revolutionary war, 1st, Lexington, 2nd, Bunkerhill, petition, sense, independence

___ continental congress to _____ & concord to ___ continental congress to battle of _____ to olive branch ______ to common ____ to declaration of independence.

constitutional convention

originally convened to fix the articls of confederation, but the delegates realized that only a new constitution could solve the short comings of the US gov.

bundle of compromises

This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody. (Great Compromise; 3/5 compromise; method of electing president; regulation of slave trade)

New Jersey plan

The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population, This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population.

Virginia plan

was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.

Connecticut plan

one house of the legislature should reflect the state's population. It was called the House of Representatives and one house should have an equal number of representatives from each state, called the Senate. Also called the Great Compromise (sig.) This solution meant that there would be a constitution.

three-fifths compromise

agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress

electoral college

a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress


supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government

anti federalists

those who opposed ratification of the constitution

elastic clause

Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution; known also as the "necessary and proper" clause that allows Congress to extend its delegated powers ( able the constitution to be flexible)

delegated powers

powers given to the federal government by the Constitution

implied powers

powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution."elastic clause" , and "necessary & proper clause"

federalist papers

Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.


a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments


statement of goals and ideals of the constitution

legislative branch

article 1 of the constitution

executive branch

article 2 of the constitution

judicial branch

article 3 of the constitution

regarding the states

article 4 of the constitution

amending the constitution

article 5 of the constitution

supremacy of the constitution and the federal government

article 6 of the constitution


article 7 of the constitution

Expressed powers

Those delegated powers of the National Government that are spelled out, expressly, in the Constitution; also called the "enumerated powers"

Reserved powers

powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states

Denied powers

powers which the Constitution does not give to the all levels of gov't. - It can't do the following: suspend Habeas corpus, have ex post facto laws, have titles for nobility, play favorites with the states

concurrent powers

powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments

1st amendment

right to speech, press, petition, assembly, religion
and the establishment clause

establishment clause

the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church

2nd amendment

right to bear arms

3rd amendment

no quartering " One of four equal parts" of soldiers during peace time

4th amendment

protection from illegal searches and seizures "exclusionary rule"

5th amendment

protection of natural rights: from self incrimination, right to grand jury indictment, protection from double jeopardy, right to due process, private property

6th amendment

rights of the accused in criminal cases: right to know the accusation, right to a speedy trail, right to a trail by an impartial jury, right to cross-examine witnesses, right to a lawyer, right to call witness

7th amendment

rights in civil cases:right to a jury trail in cases involving more than $20

8th admendment

protection form cruel and unusual punishment

9th amendment

protection of natural rights

10th amendment

reserved powers

13th amendment

protection aganist slavery

14th amendment

equal protection clause: laws of federal government protect citizens from state goverments as well, defines citizenship

15th amendment

suffrage to all citizens: aperson cannot be denied based on their race

17th amendment

direct election of senators

19th amendments

women's suffrage

23rd amendments

washington, DC receives 3 electoral votes in presidnetial elections

24th amendments

abolition of poll taxes

26th amendment

18 year old to vote


whats the best way to have an influence on the gov

citizens,18 years and older, not in prison, and registered

who has the right to vote

propaganda techniques

name calling, endorsements, glittering generalities, bandwagon, just plain folks, stacked cards, symbols

Name Calling

a method of propaganda that is an attempt to turn people against and opponent or an idea by using unpleasant labels or descriptions for that person or idea


Celebrity endorsers may be held personally liable for misrepresenting a product for not using it, if people like the person promoting a candidate or product they will too support that candidate or product

glittering generalities

propaganda technique that uses statements that sound good but are meaningless


tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or everyone is doing it

stacked cards

A type of propaganda resenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal omitting information contrary to it

electoral votes

votes cast by electors in the electoral college " winner takes all system"


soft money, campaign finance reform, public funding, political action committees (PAC's)

soft money

funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate ( now illegal)

political action committees

Independent organizations, but more often the political arms of corporations, labor unions, or interest groups, established to contribute to candidates or to work for general political goals.

mass media

television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.

interest groups

groups of people who work together for similar interests or goals


Political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, and hostility to privilege (two party system) liberals


traditional "conservatives" in the U.S., a Representative democracy where citizens choose their lawmakers. ( two party system)


each individual part of the platform


a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues


persons who do not hold extreme political views

independent parties

Formed from third parties around leaders with strong personalities who cannot get support from one of the two major parties; usually do not survive beyond the defeat of their candidates

third parties

electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections. brings new ideas

ideological parties

parties based on a particular set of beliefs

single issue parties

Parties that concentrate on only one public policy matter

multi party system

Three or more parties compete for control of the government

primary elections

Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election

direct primary

a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office

closed primary

A primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members.

open primary

Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.


(in an election with more than 2 options) the number of votes for the candidate or party receiving the greatest number (but less that half of the votes)


The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election

library of congress

research center for congress, largest book collection in the world

pork- barrel projects

Government projects and grants that benefit the home district of a member of Congress.


the work that a lawmaker does to help constituents with a problem


house of representatives, and senate

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