204 terms


Factors of Production
productive resources ( anything that can be used to produce goods and services
Financial Capital
money used to buy tools and equipment used in production
alternative choices
basic requirement for survival
people with efforts, abilities, and skills
worth of a good or service
place for buying and selling a product
capacity to be useful
"risk-taker" this special labor is creative, and it refers to human ability to think develop new ideas and business opportunities as well as managing resources ( rewarded by profit)
efficient use of resources
this is when people or perhaps capital are used to whatever task they do best, it increases productivity because more can be produced using the same amount of resources
Division of Labor
division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers; same as specialization
process of using up goods and services
sum of tangible (all goods), scarce, useful, transfered from one person to another
Opportunity Cost
cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another.
Circular Flow Model
chart used by economists to show how economic systems work and how people and businesses fit into these systems.
Product Market
where the sale of all products takes place
Factor Market
where the sale of all factors of production takes place
Voluntary Exchange
the act of buyers and sellers freely and willingly engaging in market transactions
Profit Motive
the driving force that encourages people and organizations to improve their material well-being
-the incentative is your hoping to gain money
determine which products are ultimately produced, people who use goods and services
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
the lawmaking body of British government, representative assembly in England
rule of law
principle that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern
limited government
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
consent of the Governed
the people agree to obey the laws and the government they create, The idea that government obtains its authority by approval of the people.
representative government
a system of government in which people elect delegates to make laws and conduct government
glorious revolution
This was the "revolution" that replaced James II with William and Mary that also recognized the supremacy of the Parliament with minimum bloodshed. ( this showed that legislature had more power then monarchy)
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which the people are willing to give up some of their freedom to the government for exchange in protection of their natural rights . "consent of the governed" and in which the government serves the people; also said people were born with natural rights to life, liberty and property. ( supported the Glorious revolution )
Baron De Montesquieu
French philosopher wrote The Spirit of the Laws : developed the idea of the separation of powers into three branches of government, and that each should balance each other
social contract
agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in exchange for protection of natural rights. John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were two European political philosophers who wrote about this concept.
right to revolution
if government breaks unalienable rights, people can revolt and create new government based on nature laws
Mayflower compact, direct
colonist from england (pilgrims) who built a settlement called Plymouth in Massachusetts. the colonist wrote a written plan for the government and the 41 men abroad the mayflower ship the signed the compact. ( this created a _____ democracy)
Virgina house of burgesses
This law making body established that the colonists had the right to elect their own representitive to resolve local problems. (which marked the beginning of self government in English colonies) this used to be Jamestown the 1st permanent English settlement (now Virgina)
theory that a country should sell more goods to countries than it buys
common law
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions, a body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nation's legal system
English bill of rights
Guaranteed certain rights to English citizens. Introduced the concept of individual rights. (1689)
Royal colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
charter colony
colony approved by the king to settle
proprietary colony
a colony with a single owner, colony run by individuals or groups to whom land was granted
New england colonies
Massachusetts New Hampshire Connecticut and Rhode Island. They had a short growing season long and cold winters, rocky soil and Forests and economy was based on trading shipping and ship building. known as Puritan ethic religion
Middle colonies
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Deleware. Economy based on farming- breadbasket colonies (grew large amounts of wheat, barley, rye, and other cash crops) settled by Quakers who believed in non-violence (pacifism) and treating Native Americans fairly; had religious tolerance,
southern colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; very rural with large farms "plantations" with use of slave labor; tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown with tobacco being the largest cash crop. (grown in tidewater "flat plains"
Bacon rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. ( this showed that many settlers were not willing to be restricted by the gov.)
French and Indian war
this struggle between the British and the French in the colonies of the North America was part of a worldwide war known as the Seven Years' War, (both aided by indian tribes). At the end British won the war in england wining French territory in america.
treaty of Paris
formal agreement that ended the French and Indian war and north american dominated by British. great Britain gained all land east of Mississippi r. France gained on the Caribbean, and Spain gained west of Mississippi r.
Board of trade
primary role was to make colonies serve englands economic needs, investigated the enforcements of navigation acts and made recommendations on how to improve them.
Navigation acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. (reinforced trade restrictions of colonist by use of legal documents)
proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, in order to prevent natives to fight over land.
Sugar act
halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
Stamp act
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Declatory act
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
Townshend acts
Parliament to pass the Townshend Acts. These acts put a light import duty on such things as glass, lead, paper, and tea. The acts met slight protest from the colonists, who found ways around the taxes such as buying smuggled tea. Due to its minute profits, the Townshend Acts were repealed in 1770, except for the tax on tea. The tax on tea was kept to keep alive the principle of Parliamentary taxation.
Boston massacre
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
committees of correspondence
A network of communicaiton set up in Massachusetts and Virginia to inform other colonies of ways that Britain threatened colonial rights. as a result of Boston massacre to get all colonist to act as one
Tea act
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Boston tea party
protest against British taxes in which the Sons of Liberty boarded British ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor in 1773, a protest against taxation without representation by the Sons of Liberty
intolerable acts
were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress.
first continental congress
The assembly of colonial delegates from every colony except Georgia that met in 1774 in Philadelphia to oppose the Intolerable Acts. wrote in declaration of rights to run their own affairs which was sent to king George 3rd demanding it and support boycotting of British goods.
battle of Lexington and concord
The first battle of the revolutionary war and the place of the shot heard round the world.
second continental congress
They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence
battle of bunker hill
First major battle of the Revolutions. It showed that the Americans could hold their own, but the British were also not easy to defeat. Ultimately, the Americans were forced to withdraw after running out of ammunition, and Bunker Hill was in British hands. However, the British suffered more deaths.
olive branch petition
An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll
common sense
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain
declaration of independence, government, separation
This document was
adopted on July 4, 1776. It
established the 13 American colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document. influenced by the ideas of John Locke. (3 parts-New theory of _____, reasons for ______, formal declaration of war and independence)
state constitutions
separation of power within the government and each state includes the bill of rights
articles of confederation
the first constitution in united states, too weak a central government, biggest problems include the inability to tax the states and enforce laws
shays rebellion
due to inflation they farms and veterans couldn't pay back loan so their land must be taken away. although a rebellion led by Daniel shay on the gov. of Massachusetts thought they were defeated.. this rebellion sent a message to all the states that the central government was too weak to hand the problems of the new nation
delegates were requested from the 13 states to propose _____ to the articles of confederation that will improve the central government's ability to handle the nations problems
revolutionary war, 1st, Lexington, 2nd, Bunkerhill, petition, sense, independence
___ continental congress to _____ & concord to ___ continental congress to battle of _____ to olive branch ______ to common ____ to declaration of independence.
constitutional convention
originally convened to fix the articls of confederation, but the delegates realized that only a new constitution could solve the short comings of the US gov.
bundle of compromises
This referred to the fact that the Constitution was trying to please everybody. (Great Compromise; 3/5 compromise; method of electing president; regulation of slave trade)
New Jersey plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population, This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population.
Virginia plan
was presented to the Constitutional Convention and proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population. favored the large states, which would have a much greater voice. In the end, the two sides found common ground through the Connecticut Compromise.
Connecticut plan
one house of the legislature should reflect the state's population. It was called the House of Representatives and one house should have an equal number of representatives from each state, called the Senate. Also called the Great Compromise (sig.) This solution meant that there would be a constitution.
three-fifths compromise
agreement providing that enslaved persons would count as three-fifths of other persons in determining representation in congress
electoral college
a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
supporters of the constitution during the debate over its ratification; favored a strong national government
anti federalists
those who opposed ratification of the constitution
elastic clause
Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution; known also as the "necessary and proper" clause that allows Congress to extend its delegated powers ( able the constitution to be flexible)
delegated powers
powers given to the federal government by the Constitution
implied powers
powers not specifically mentioned in the constitution."elastic clause" , and "necessary & proper clause"
federalist papers
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
statement of goals and ideals of the constitution
legislative branch
article 1 of the constitution
executive branch
article 2 of the constitution
judicial branch
article 3 of the constitution
regarding the states
article 4 of the constitution
amending the constitution
article 5 of the constitution
supremacy of the constitution and the federal government
article 6 of the constitution
article 7 of the constitution
Expressed powers
Those delegated powers of the National Government that are spelled out, expressly, in the Constitution; also called the "enumerated powers"
Reserved powers
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
Denied powers
powers which the Constitution does not give to the all levels of gov't. - It can't do the following: suspend Habeas corpus, have ex post facto laws, have titles for nobility, play favorites with the states
concurrent powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
1st amendment
right to speech, press, petition, assembly, religion
and the establishment clause
establishment clause
the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
2nd amendment
right to bear arms
3rd amendment
no quartering " One of four equal parts" of soldiers during peace time
4th amendment
protection from illegal searches and seizures "exclusionary rule"
5th amendment
protection of natural rights: from self incrimination, right to grand jury indictment, protection from double jeopardy, right to due process, private property
6th amendment
rights of the accused in criminal cases: right to know the accusation, right to a speedy trail, right to a trail by an impartial jury, right to cross-examine witnesses, right to a lawyer, right to call witness
7th amendment
rights in civil cases:right to a jury trail in cases involving more than $20
8th admendment
protection form cruel and unusual punishment
9th amendment
protection of natural rights
10th amendment
reserved powers
13th amendment
protection aganist slavery
14th amendment
equal protection clause: laws of federal government protect citizens from state goverments as well, defines citizenship
15th amendment
suffrage to all citizens: aperson cannot be denied based on their race
17th amendment
direct election of senators
19th amendments
women's suffrage
23rd amendments
washington, DC receives 3 electoral votes in presidnetial elections
24th amendments
abolition of poll taxes
26th amendment
18 year old to vote
whats the best way to have an influence on the gov
citizens,18 years and older, not in prison, and registered
who has the right to vote
propaganda techniques
name calling, endorsements, glittering generalities, bandwagon, just plain folks, stacked cards, symbols
Name Calling
a method of propaganda that is an attempt to turn people against and opponent or an idea by using unpleasant labels or descriptions for that person or idea
Celebrity endorsers may be held personally liable for misrepresenting a product for not using it, if people like the person promoting a candidate or product they will too support that candidate or product
glittering generalities
propaganda technique that uses statements that sound good but are meaningless
tries to persuade the reader to do, think, or buy something because it is popular or everyone is doing it
stacked cards
A type of propaganda resenting information that is positive to an idea or proposal omitting information contrary to it
electoral votes
votes cast by electors in the electoral college " winner takes all system"
soft money, campaign finance reform, public funding, political action committees (PAC's)
soft money
funds obtained by political parties that are spent on party activities, such as get-out-the-vote drives, but not on behalf of a specific candidate ( now illegal)
political action committees
Independent organizations, but more often the political arms of corporations, labor unions, or interest groups, established to contribute to candidates or to work for general political goals.
mass media
television, radio, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication.
interest groups
groups of people who work together for similar interests or goals
Political party that generally stressed individual liberty, the rights of the common people, and hostility to privilege (two party system) liberals
traditional "conservatives" in the U.S., a Representative democracy where citizens choose their lawmakers. ( two party system)
each individual part of the platform
a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues
persons who do not hold extreme political views
independent parties
Formed from third parties around leaders with strong personalities who cannot get support from one of the two major parties; usually do not survive beyond the defeat of their candidates
third parties
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections. brings new ideas
ideological parties
parties based on a particular set of beliefs
single issue parties
Parties that concentrate on only one public policy matter
multi party system
Three or more parties compete for control of the government
primary elections
Election in which voters choose the candidates from each party who will run in the general election
direct primary
a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
closed primary
A primary election in which voting is limited to already registered party members.
open primary
Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.
(in an election with more than 2 options) the number of votes for the candidate or party receiving the greatest number (but less that half of the votes)
The candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
library of congress
research center for congress, largest book collection in the world
pork- barrel projects
Government projects and grants that benefit the home district of a member of Congress.
the work that a lawmaker does to help constituents with a problem
house of representatives, and senate
a period count of the population
floor leader
Members of the House and Senate picked by their parties to carry out party decisions and steer legislative action to meet party goals
party whip
a legislator appointed by the party to enforce discipline ( assists the party leader and persuade votes of the party members )
standing committees
permanent committees
small groups in congress formed to consider bills
select committees
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation. (for a limited time)
joint committees
Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses
conference committees
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill.
seniority system
A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose party controlled Congress became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
a tactic for defeating a bill in the Senate by talking until the bill's sponsor withdraws it
a procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate
to set a bill aside by a committee without considering it, to not act on the bill so that it will die
presidential veto
a president's authority to reject a bill passed by Congress; may only be overridden by a two-thirds majority in each house
pocket veto
when a president kills a bill passed during the last 10 days Congress is in session by simply refusing to act on it
chief executive
carry out laws, head of executive bureaucracy (appoints the cabinet members) can issue executive orders (power of law)
chief diplomat
directs foreign policy (plan for dealing with other nations of U.S., make treaties and appoints foreign ambassadors ( official representative of a country's gov, issues executive agreement, can be impeached if not enforcing laws by congress, and supreme court could declare executive orders unconstitutional, must be approved by the senate
commander in chief
head of military (all branches), senate appoint all treaties & ambassador
legislative leader
proposes and influence legislation process, veto legislation, state of the union address to congress, congress can override veto
chief of state
no real power symbol to the nation, greet foreign leaders carries traditional functions
economic leader
solves economic problems: plan federal gov. budget by proposing it to the H.O.R
party leader
leader of his/her political party, help raise money, campaigns for party members, must be approved by senate, ability to campaign and raise money for members is limited by president's approval rating
chief judiciary
appoints federal/supreme court judges, can grant forgiveness throughout pardon (one person) or amnesty (group), must be senate approval
goals of foreign policy
national security, international trade, promoting world peace, promoting democracy around the world.
merit system
A system of hiring people based on their abilities
civil service worker
employee of the national government who usually has permanent employment
spoils system
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
original jurisdiction
the authority to hear a case for the first time, conducts a trail, includes a trial with witnesses, evidence, judge, (sometimes a jury)
appellate jurisdiction
the authority to review the due process of a case tried in a lower court
exclusive jurisdiction
when there is only one court that has the authority to hear a case or conduct the trial.
concurrent jurisdiction
when more than one court may have the authority to hear a case or conduct the trial
common law
laws are applied fair and equal to everyone who is subject to them, precedent, stare decisis" when on appeal the court tries to uphold earlier decisions rather than overrun the m when possible
human capital
a difficult thing to measure this is the skills, abilities, health and motivation of employees
people's wants and needs are always more than our resource can supply, which all societies face can help by making rational choices.
is the furthest limit
alternative, value
trade offs are ______ and opportunity cost is the _____ we place on the things we didn't choose
factors of production
land, capital, labor, entrepreneurs
owners of the factors of production particularly labor and entrepreneurship
business or industries that use the factors of production to produce goods or services
law of demand
people are willing to buy less of the produce if the price is high and more if the price is low
having exclusive control over a commercial activity by possession or legal grant "no competition"
small groups of large producers that controlled most of the free market. Standard for the 1920s
Sherman Anti- trust act
an 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States
Clayton anti-trust act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies (supports) of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions. Weakened monopolies, upheld rights of unions.
National labor relations Act
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining, sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-management relations.
fair labor standards act
1938 act which provided for a minimum wage and restricted shipments of goods produced with child labor
Taft Hartley act
Act that provides balance of power between union and management by designating certain union activities as unfair labor practices; also known as Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA)
total dollar value of all final goods and services produced in a country during a single year
a measure of the overall cost of the goods and services bought by a typical consumer
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
taxes on imports and exports
allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
excise tax
Consumer tax on a specific kind of merchandise, such as tobacco.
progressive tax
a tax that imposes a higher percentage rate of taxation on persons with higher incomes
regressive tax
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
proportional tax
A tax in which the average tax rate is the same at all income levels.