traditional dish of the Middle East made from chick peas or garbanzo beans.
Aided the Arabic cultures in defeating the Ottoman Turks in WWI.
Holy book of Islam
Last month of the Islamic calendar; faithful Muslims fast from sunup to sundown during this month.
Number of times a day a faithful Muslim prays.
Percentage faithful Muslims give to charity.
Islamic prophet and founder of Islam.
Leader of the Shiah Muslims following the death of Muhammad.
Leader of the Sunni Muslims following the death of Muhammad.
Islamic extremist group found in the norther portions of Iraq and Syria.
A Sunni Muslim group found in the mountainous region of northern Iraq; they are currently being supplied by the U.S. to fight ISIS.
Destination of a faithful Muslim's pilgrimage; also contains the Ka'aba.
City of conflict for the three monotheistic religions; all three lay claim to some part of old portion of this city.
This is the location under the control of the Islamic faith/culture in Jerusalem; the Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa mosque is found here.
Dome of the Rock
According to Islamic traditions, this is the location from which Muhammad ascended to heaven; additionally, this is the supposed location from which Abraham attempted to sacrifice his son (Isaac or Ishmael - depending upon the monotheistic faith).
the Western Wall of Solomon's Temple; retains spiritual significance to faithful Jews.
Church of the Holy Sepulcher
According to Christian traditions, this is the location of "Golgotha" and the tomb in which Jesus was buried.
Series of wars in which the Christian cultures of Europe attempting to regain control of Jerusalem from the Muslim cultures of the Middle East.
Sultan of Egypt and Syria; he defeated King Richard the Lionhearted in the Crusades.
A document you could purchase from the Roman Church for the remittance of your wrongdoings.
Venice, Genoa, Pisa
Three cities in Italy that benefited financially from the Crusades.
Man-made water way from the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
U.S. president who greatly influence foreign policy away from the Middle East at the beginning of the 20th Century.
Former dictator of Iraq; he was once accused of using chemical weapons on the Kurds; he was also accused of developing a nuclear weapon resulting in the U.S. invasion of Iraq.
Current president of Syria; retain dictator-like status; accused of using chemical weapons on his own people in the Syrian civil war.
An individual who is displaced from their home as a result of war or other conflict.
Post-WWI agreement to divide the Ottoman Empire into smaller countries under Western European influence; this did not include a state for the Israelis nor did it include a state for the Kurds.
Six Day War
Conflict between the Israelis and Palestinians in which the Israelis used a preemptive strike to end the war in six days.
The last of the High Holy Days; important Jewish holiday; in 1973, the Arab nations surrounding Israel attacked Israel on this day.
A mass movement of the Jewish culture back to Zion (Jerusalem); did not gain much momentum until the conclusion of WWI.
An agreement between the British administration and the Jewish culture detailing Jewish support of the war effort in WWI in return for a British effort to reestablish a country for Israel in the Middle East.
Terrorist organization associated with the attacks on the U.S. on 9/11.
Extremist political group found in Afghanistan which provided a safe environment for Al Qaeda to perform its terrorist activities.
Political group (sometimes labeled a terrorist organization) representing Palestinian interests in Israel; their objective is to fight for Palestinian independence.
Former leader of the PLO.
Palestinian Liberation Organization; past organization representing Palestinian interests in the Middle East; once led by Yassir Arafat.
Camp David Accords
A series of peace agreements between Israel and Middle Eastern countries which have taken place at the presidential retreat center in the U.S. named Camp David; President Carter was the first U.S. president to organize these peace agreements between Egypt and Israel.
A recent surge in democratic revolutions in the northern portions of Africa and the Middle East; most revolutionaries fought for more individual freedoms and an overthrow of dictatorial regimes.
Leading consumer of oil in the world today.
Leading producer of oil in the world today.
Organization of oil producing countries; working together, these countries can control the production of oil and, therefore, control the cost of oil.
The spreading of cultural characteristics to another culture; example: china from China.
Created one of the world's earliest law codes which is the culmination of an advanced civilization; "eye for an eye."
A.k.a. the Fertile Crescent; land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Domestication of Plants and Animals
One of the essential characteristics of an advanced civilization; this is needed to create a larger population.
Supreme leader of Iran; likes to tweet - which is ironic seeing that the people of Iran are not allowed to access social media sights.
Former president of Iran; made a number of harsh statements towards Israel and the Western world.
Took place in 1979 when the Shah of Iran was overthrown; the U.S. embassy in Tehran was also invaded; this led to increased oil prices in the U.S. and a unstable relationship between Iran and the U.S.
Jewish holy book.
The Islamic culture can trace their ancestry back to Abraham through this guy; Abraham's son through Hagar.
The Jewish culture can trace their ancestry back to Abraham through this guy; Abraham's son with Sarah.
Arabic term for pilgrimage; one of the Five Pillars of Faith.
Destination of the Hajj
Step-pyramid found in many ancient civilizations including Sumeria.
German chancellor; Biggest European advocate for opening European borders to accept Syrian refugees.
Small sect of Islam; Assad - the president of Syria - is an Alawite.
Former president of Iran; voiced his distrust of Israel . . . "We will wipe Israel off the face of the earth."
Year of the Iranian Revolution and the beginning of the Iranian Hostage Crisis.
Jewish festival/holiday remembering the great exodus from Egyptian bondage.
Agreement to redraw the boundaries of countries of the Middle East following WWI and the breakup of the Ottoman Empire.
Abu Bakr al Baghdadi
Leader of ISIS
President of Syria; used chemical weapons multiple times on his own people.
Wedge-shaped form of writing created by the Sumerians.
Method used to extract oil from the earth's crust; it has greatly increased oil production in the U.S.
Wheat and Barely
Two domesticated plants native to the Middle East.
Partial acceptance of another culture's characteristics.
Natural human reaction when an individual confronts someone not like himself/herself.
Respect for another culture's characteristics.
Women just recently acquired the freedom to drive in this country.
Unwritten law code found in many Islamic cultures based upon translations of the Koran.
Location where Osama bin Laden was found.
Middle Eastern country in the middle of a civil war.
A letter, a picture, a text message, an email, an interview, an autobiography.
An encyclopedia article, a textbook, a biography, etc.
Israeli prime minister.
Percent of oil produced by OPEC.
Belief in one god.
Belief in many gods.
Pope Urban II
Initiated the Crusades
Kurdish military force
Spreading out of Jews from Jerusalem following the destruction of their holy temple by the Romans in A.D. 70.