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OLSON WORLD STUDIES FINAL
Terms in this set (118)
why did European rulers encourage ocean exploration?
different countries needed different goods from Europe, and some of them could not be reached on land. Also, is was faster to trade overseas.
which countries were involved in the Line of Demarcation?
Spain and Portugal
what is significant about Prince Henry and his significance to exploration?
he was known as Prince Henry the Navigator, and he led the way in sponsoring exploration for Portugal.
What was Ferdinand Magellan's claim to fame?
he found the Pacific ocean
how did European expansion of the slave trade affect African states?
their population went down a lot because the Europeans would come in and take people from their homes; small towns in Africa even disappeared.
what was Pizarro known for?
he was interested in Peru's Inca empire; he invaded and captured thousands of Incans
what did Cortes do?
what did Malinche do?
served as translator for Cortes
what did Moctezuma do?
he was an Aztec emperor
what were the encomiendas?
the rights to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans in a particular area
Why did Spanish explorers come to the Americas?
They came as slave laborers and for a better life
Mercantilists believed that a nation's real wealth was measured in its gold and silver treasure, and they thought that a nation must export more goods than it imported.
What was the result of encounters between the Spanish and Native Americans?
What did Philip II's foreign and domestic policy center itself around?
What is absolutism?
when the ruler has absolute power
what is "divine right?"
believing that the authority of a ruler comes straight from God
Who was involved in the religious wars in France?
Catholics and Huguenots
What was the Edict of Nantes?
it granted the Huguenots religious toleration and other freedoms
what happened to lay the foundation for a limited monarchy in England?
the Glorious Revolution
what was Oliver Cromwell able to do in England?
his army defeated the Cavaliers which led to the killing of the king
Why did English kings need Parliament?
to raise taxes
What did Peter the Great gain in his war with Sweden?
built St. Petersburg
What were the results of the Treaty of Westphalia?
The Hapsburgs had to accept the almost total independence of all the princes of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Netherlands and Switzerland won independence
How were Enlightenment ideas spread?
They were spread by art, music, and trade from France, across Europe, and beyond
What were the ideas associated with Montesquieu?
He had many ideas about how government should be run, and they were in his book called The Spirit of Laws
What are the beliefs of those who supported laissez-faire economics?
They thought that businesses should operate wit little or no governments
How did the Constitution of the U.S. reflect ideas of Enlightenment thinkers?
The people who formed the Constitution had studied the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers.
Who supported the French economy before the French Revolution?
the Third Estate
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
when the Third Estate was kicked out of their meeting room by the other two estates so they decided they would meet in a tennis court until they had made a constitution
What was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?
it was modeled after the American Declaration of Independence, and it stated that everyone was created equal before the law
What did Robespierre try to do during the Reign of Terror?
he tried to stop slavery
What were the 2 main reasons why Napoleon's Grand Empire
France had a weak economy, and Napoleon conducted too many wars
How did the Age of Napoleon affect Europe?
He helped spread the ideas of the Revolution
What was the chief goal of the Congress of Vienna?
Restoring stability and order in Europe
Leader of the Jacobins in the National Assembly and leader of the Committee of Public safety
embodied Enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism
fought alongside George Washington during the American Revolution
closed European ports to British goods, made by Napoleon
machine with a large blade used to behead people during the Reign of terror
Olympe de Gouges
a journalist who demanded equal rights in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen
a popular vote by ballot
How did life change during the Industrial Revolution?
People began thinking for themselves
In what industry did the first factories develop?
Why did Karl Marx despise capitalism?
He thought that it would cause a struggle between social classes
What were working conditions in the mines and factories?
They were terrible and there were many injuries and even deaths
What group benefitted the most from the Industrial Revolution?
The lower-middle and working class
What was Bismarck responsible for?
the unification of Germany
What was Kulturkampf?
the "battle for civilization," goal was to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above the Church
Why were the Balkans referred to as a "powder keg?"
because of all the explosions
What was an obstacle to Italian unification?
There was frequent warfare
What was an obstacle to Russian progress?
The struggle with the czar and the lower class revolting
violent mob attacks on Jewish people
elected national legislature
movement away form one's homeland
a longtime nationalist and ally of Mazzini
politician who aided in the unification of Italy
people who want to abolish all government
How did the Industrial Revolution encourage imperialism?
it made people search for raw materials and new markets for the things being produced, and it encouraged militarism
what was used as a justification for imperialism?
the spread of culture
how did Western imperialism impact culture worldwide?
It pressured people to confirm to modern ways and believe in western superiority
what are the 4 long-term causes of WWI?
entangling alliances, militarism, nationalism, and imperialism
drafting young men into the war
the glorification of the military
people who would constantly call for war
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
what weapon contributed to the stalemate on the Western Front?
Why was WWI more destructive than earlier wars?
it was a total war
What characterized fighting on the Western Front?
What helped the Allies to achieve a breakthrough in WWI?
America joining the Allies
What did Woodrow Wilson argue for at the Paris Peace Conference?
What was Germany forced to do under the Treaty of Versailles?
Assume full blame for causing the war
What were the causes of the Russian Revolution?
Who led the Bolsheviks in their Revolution?
How did Joseph Stalin rise to power?
He became the new Soviet Union leader after Lenin died
What attracted Italians to fascism in the 1920s?
it promised a strong, stable government and an end to the political feuding that had paralyzed democracy in Italy.
What did Germany blame the Weimar Republic for?
For the war and the Treaty of Versailles
What were the key components of National Socialism or Nazism?
They ran on a totalitarianism rule, and they used force
How did the western democracies respond to the Axis aggression in the 1930s?
They tried to convince the world that they were just bystanders in the aggression, and the US passed 3 neutrality acts saying that they would not take part in the aggression.
What was the Allied invasion of Nazi occupied France known as?
a very fast military attack
ancient Greek term for Axumite kingdom
a former republic in central Europe; divided into Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993
Spanish general whose armies took control of Spain in 1939
a painting by Picasso, depicting the bombing Guernica Basque Country, by German and Italian warplanes
union of Austria and Germany
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition
German air force
point in France from which 300,000 Allied troops were evacuated when their retreat by land was cut off by Germany in 1940
Operation Sea Lion
Nazi Germany's plan to invade the UK during WWII
German field marshal; known as the Desert Fox
the systematic genocide of about six million European Jews by the Nazis during WWII
the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war materiel between 1941 and 1945
British statesman and leader during World War II
Dec. 7, 1941
Pearl Harbor Attack: unannounced military strike conducted by the Japanese navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor
Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill
United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany; 34th President of the United States
a city in SW Russia that was the site of a fierce battle during WWII
the day that Allied forces invaded France on June 6, 1944
US general, during World War II, he commanded forces in many invasions
a meeting between the Allied leaders Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin in February 1945 at Yalta, a Crimean port on the Black Sea
victory in Europe day, May 8, 1945, the Allies won WWII in Europe
commander of US forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation
Japanese aircraft loaded with explosives and making a deliberate suicidal crash on an enemy target.
code name for the project to build the first atomic bomb during WWII
city in Japan where the first atomic bomb was dropped in August 1945
city in Japan where the second atomic bomb was dropped in August 1945
city in Germany where Hitler staged Nazi rallies in the 1930s
international organization established after WWII with the goal of maintaining peace and cooperation in the international community
US policy, established in 1947, of trying to contain the spread of communism
massive aid package offered by the US to Europe to help countries rebuild after WWII
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
mutual-defense alliance between the SU and seven satellites in Eastern Europe set up in 1955
Who were the major rivals in the Cold War?
The US and the Soviet Union
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