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AP Psychology Personality
Terms in this set (65)
Id is to "Just do it" as superego is to
c. "Don't do it."
The unconscious contains
c. repressed memories and emotions.
Behavioral theories of personality are often criticized for their
b. limited recognition of temperament, emotion, and subjective factors.
The concept of traits is used to account for personal characteristics that are
b. relatively permanent and enduring.
The five-factor model of personality includes
A personality theory is a(n)
b. interrelated system of concepts used to explain personality.
Which of the following is an unconscious personality structure made up of biological urges seeking fulfillment?
Criticisms of Freud's developmental theory have centered on
a. the over-emphasis on sexuality in personality development.
One problem psychologists have with personality types is they
b. oversimplify personality.
Freud believed that personality was typified by
a. a delicate balance of power among the three personality structures.
To understand personality, trait theorists attempt to
c. classify traits and discover how they are related to behavior.
According to Freud, the energy from life instincts that drives personality is called the
According to Freud, the id is governed by the
a. pleasure principle.
b. emphasize situational determinants of behavior.
In the Freudian view of personality, which system is totally unconscious and dominated by biological instincts?
__________ theory maximized and __________ theory minimized the role of the unconscious.
b. Psychoanalytic; behaviorist
According to Freud, the ego is governed by the
b. reality principle.
The five-factor model of personality includes
conscientiousness, Neuroticism, openness, Agreeableness, extraversion
According to Jung, art, religion, myths, and drama are important to individual functioning because they
b. are symbols that appeal to basic archetypes.
One of Freud's major contributions was his
a. belief that the first years of life help to shape personality.
What do psychologists mean by the term trait-situation interaction?
d. Situations affect how traits are exhibited.
An adjective checklist would most likely be used by a
d. trait theorist.
The "amazing similarities" of identical twins may be a result of
a. the fallacy of positive instances.
Psychologists who believe that people grow and develop throughout their lives and that people are inherently good are
Connie and Sue are identical twins reared apart and recently reunited. Carl and Fred are unrelated students at a major university. Which of the following statements is TRUE of these pairings?
b. Connie and Sue will probably share many similarities; Carl and Fred may share many similarities but are probably not motivated enough to discover them.
According to the humanists, __________ occurs when people are free from dependence on external authority or on other people.
A psychiatrist who explains pathological behavior as a conflict between underlying psychological forces is using the __________ model.
According to behaviorists,
b. personality is acquired through conditioning and observational learning.
The part of the mind that is beyond awareness is called the
The __________ contains material of which you may be unaware but that can easily be brought to awareness.
According to Freud, the key to mental health is
d. balance among mental processes.
If you know the personality of an identical twin, you can expect the personality of the other twin to be
The __________ begins with puberty and ends with a mature capacity for love and the realization of full adult sexuality.
c. genital stage
Which is included as one of the traits Maslow theorized were possessed by self-actualizers?
d. capacity to laugh at oneself
We each have a perception of our own personality traits. This perception strongly influences our behavior. Psychologists call this perception
A key element of Carl Rogers' personality theory is the concept of
b. the self or self-image.
According to Freud, the Oedipal and Electra conflicts end when a child takes on the values and behaviors of the same sex parent in a process called
Between the ages of 1 and 3 years, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
The position that personality is composed of learned patterns is held by
c. behaviorists or behavioral personality theorists.
Which theory of personality was developed by Sigmund Freud?
Freud became interested in the study of personality when he realized that
a. his patients lacked physical causes for their problems.
Jung believed that there are basic universal concepts in all people regardless of culture called
The description of a person's character implies
d. judgment about the desirability of traits.
The main criticism of humanistic theory is that
c. its concepts are imprecise and difficult to study objectively.
If self-esteem is too high, the person may be
Behaviorists are to the external environment as humanists are to
b. personal growth.
Freud believed that at each psychosexual stage a different part of the body becomes
c. an erogenous zone.
Self-actualization refers to
c. anyone who is making full use of his or her potentials.
The term personality refers to
b. unique and enduring behavior patterns.
__________ theories stress private, subjective experience and personal growth.
During the first year of life, the child is said to go through the __________ stage.
Critics of psychoanalytic personality theory note its failure to
a. be able to predict future behavior.
Learning sex-appropriate behavior is greatly influenced by
b. identification and imitation.
Which of the following is POOR advice for a person who wishes to promote self-actualization?
d. Try to live up to what others think you should be.
If you were asked to describe the personality of your best friend, and you said she was optimistic, reserved, and friendly, you would be using the __________ approach.
The halo effect refers to
d. the tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to unrelated details of personality.
According to Rogers, the __________ self represents a very idealized self-image.
In Freudian theory, the __________ is the "executive" structure that is directed by the reality principle.
According to Freud, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts occur during the
c. phallic stage.
Characteristics that are shared by most members of a culture are termed
d. common traits.
The role "possible selves" play in our lives is to
c. direct our behavior toward an imagined future.
In Adler's view, the main striving of personality is for
An overly strict or harsh superego will cause
c. inhibition, rigidity, or intolerable guilt.
Concerning pure extraversion and pure introversion, it is most accurate to say
b. most people fall somewhere between these extremes.
Classifying people as having either a Type A or Type B personality has been used to predict
b. chances of suffering a heart attack.
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